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Chemistryyy!!!

QuestionAnswer
Matter that has definite shape and definite volume. Solid
Atoms of more than one type of element that are chemically bonded together. Compounds
Matter that does not have shape or volume. Gas
Process where a solid changes directly into a gas. Sublimation
Characteristics that can be observed without changing the compositions of the substance. Physical Properties
Temperature at which a gas changes into a liquid. It is the same temperature as the boiling point. Condensation Point
Type of bonding that occurs when atoms are combine due to opposite charges attracting each other. Ionic
State of electrically charged, free-moving particles. Plasma
Temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid. It is the same temperature as the melting point. Freezing Point
Name for atoms that have a charge because they have either lost or gained electrons Ions
Matter with definite volume, but no definite shape. Liquid
Name that refers to the electrons found in the outermost energy level. Valence
Type of bonding that involves atoms sharing electrons. Covalent
Process where a gas changes directly into a solid. Deposition
Characteristics that cannot be observed without changing the substance’s composition. Chemical properties
Examples of Pjysical Changes Melting ice, cutting paper, dissolving sugar in water, drawing on paper
Examples of Chemical Changes Fireworks exploding, leaves changing colors, glowing lightstick, campfire, rusting nails, molding bread
Substance that cannot be broken into simpler substances Element
Substances that are made of 2 or more chemically bonded atoms. Compounds
Covalent bonds occur between two nonmetals (ex. H2O)
Nonmetals H, C, N, P, O, S, Se, F, Cl, Br, I
Polar Covalent Compounds Not all electrons are shared evenly in a covalent compound.
Carbon Compounds -Foundation for life –Carbohydrates, Lipids/Fats, Proteins, & Amino Acids.
long chains of Hydrogen & Carbon atoms: Alcohols & Fuels long chains of Hydrogen & Carbon Hydrocarbons
substances that undergo a chemical change Reactants
substances that are the result of a chemical change. Products
Law of Conservation of Mass The mass of the reactants will equal the mass of the products.
reaction where energy is absorbed endothermic
reaction where energy is given off. exothermic
Rates of Reactions How fast or how slow a reaction will take can be affected by some of the following factors: 1. Temperature 2. Surface Area 3. Pressure
Catalysts a substance that speeds up a reaction that doesn’t actually react. Example: Enzymes
A mixture that is evenly mixed throughout. Homogeneous Mixtures
A mixture that is NOT mixed evenly throughout & each component keeps its own properties. Heterogeneous Mixtures
Protons Positively charged particles. • The number of protons in the nucleus determines one element from another.
Neutrons Particles that have NO charge (neutral). • Each element may change its number of neutrons.
Electrons Tiny, negatively charged particles. · Electrons are found randomly in specific energy levels surrounding the nucleus.
Quarks Quarks are very small particles that make up protons & neutrons. · There are a total of 6 different “flavors” of quarks that have been discovered.
Came up with the word “atomos” to describe the smallest form of matter that could not be divided Democritus
said that matter can be divided infinitely Aristotle
Proposed the concept of the Atomic Theory. John Dalton
Discovered the electron using magnets & a cathode ray tube. · Described the atom as “plum pudding”. J.J. Thomson
Discovered the atom’s nucleus in his gold foil experiment. The nucleus is positively charged and the atom is mostly empty space. Ernest Rutherford
Discovered the electron’s exact negative charge in his oil drop experiment. Robert Millikan
Shows the number of protons in the nucleus. Atomic Number
Number of protons plus neutrons Mass Number
Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Isotopes
The weighted average of the isotopes of an element. Atomic Mass You can calculate the average number of neutrons in an element by subtracting the atomic number from the atomic mass.
Metals Most of the elements are solid metals. · Metals are usually shiny, malleable, good conductors of heat & electricity and ductile.
Metalloids Elements that have some characteristics of both metals & nonmetals. · Examples: Boron, Silicon, Antimony, & Arsenic.
Nonmetals Most nonmetals are gases. · Solid nonmetals are brittle, poor conductors, & not easily shaped. · 97% of your body is made of nonmetals.
A row of elements. Periods
the vertical columns of elements that have similar physical & chemical properties. Families
Most reactive of the metals. Alkali Metals
Commonly used in fireworks for the colors. · Has 2 electrons in the outermost shell. Alkaline Earth Metals
Wide variety of metals such as coin & structural metals. · Middle of the periodic table. Transition Elements
Bond with Alkali Metals to form salts. · Have 7 electrons in outermost shell. · Steal electrons from other atoms – reactive nonmetals. · Poisonous gases Bond with Alkali Metals to form salts. · Have 7 electrons in outermost shell. · Steal electrons from other atoms – reactive nonmetals. · Poisonous gases
Nonmetals Period: reactivity increases as you go from left to right across a period. · Group: reactivity decreases as you go down a group
a group of atoms connected by covalent bonds. Molecules
Created by: KirstenStyles
 

 



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