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CLINICAL CHEMISTRY

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY FROM POWER POINT

QuestionAnswer
WHY CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AID IN ACCURATE DIAGNOSES
WHY CLINICAL CHEMISTRY POINT OF CARE
WHY CLINICAL CHEMISTRY PRESCRIBE PROPER THERAPY
WHY CLINICAL CHEMISTRY DOCUMENT RESPONSE TO TREATMENT
SAMPLE COLLECTION WHOLE BLOOD
PLASMA FLUID PORTION OF WHOLE BLOOD
SERUM PLAMA-FIBROGEN (PROTEIN) REMOVED
SAMPLE COLLECTION WHOLE BLOOD
SAMPLE COLLECTION INSTRUMENT SPECIFIC
SAMPLE COLLECTION PRE & POST PRANDIAL
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY HEMOLYSIS
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY SAMPLE COLLECTION/TRANSFER
HEMOLYSIS CAUSES FALSE INCREASES OF:K,P, SOME ENZYMES
HEMOLYSIS ALTERS LIPASE, BILIRUBIN
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY IMPROPER LABELING
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY IMPROPER SAMPLE HANDLING; IDEAL TO RUN TESTS WITHIN 1 HOUR OF COLLECTION
RESULTS ARE ALTERED BY THE PATIENT
REFERENCE RANGES GENERAL OR LAB SPECIFIC.
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS PROTEINS
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS HEPATOBILIARY
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS KIDNEY
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS OTHER ENDOCRINE
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS ELECTROLYTES
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS MISCELLANEOUS
SPECIFIC CHEMISTRY TESTS; GROUPS TOXICOLOGY
PROTEINS TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, GLOBULIN, ALB/GLOB RATIO
TOTAL PROTEIN HYDRATION STATUS
TOTAL PROTEINS ARE ALTERED BY HEPATIC SYNTHESIS
TOTAL PROTEINS ARE ALTERED BY PROTEIN DISTRUBUTION
TOTAL PROTEINS ARE ALTERED BY PROTEIN BREAKDOWN/EXCREATION
TOTAL PROTEINS ARE ALTERED BY HYDRATION
ALUBMIN 35-50% OF TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN
ALUBMIN MADE BY LIVER
DECREASE ALUBMIN LIVER DISEASE, ANOREXIA, RENAL DISEASE AND MALABSORPTION
GLOBULINS MADE BY LIVER
GLOBULINS DETERMINED MATHEMATICALLY
TP-ALBUMIN= GLOBULIN
ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO ABNORMAL RATION IS FIRST INDICATOR OF PROTEIN PROBLEM
ALBUMIN/GLOBULIN RATIO RATIO DOESNT CHANGE IF ALB & GLOB GO UP AND DOWN TOGERTHER; HEMMORAGE
FIBRINOGEN MADE BY LIVER
FIBRINOGEN INCREASED BY ACUTE INFLAMMATION OR TISSUE DAMAGE
FIBRINOGEN HEPARIN CAUSES FALSE LOW RESULTS
HEPATOBILIARY ASSAYS LIVER AND GALLBLADDER
HEPATOBILIARY ASSAYS NO SINGLE TEST IS SUPERIOR TO ANY OTHER FOR DETECTING HEPATOBILIARY DISEASE
THREE CATEGORIES OF HEPATOBILIARY TESTS LIVER DAMAGE, CHOLESTASIS, LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
ALT ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALT DOGS, CATS, PRIMATES,
ALT RENAL CELLS, CARDIAC & SKELETAL MUSCLE, PANCREAS
AST ASPERTATE TRANSMINASE
AST RISE SLOWER THAN ALT= WORSE DAMAGE
RBCS, CARDIAC & SKELETAL MUSCLE, KIDNEY, PANCREAS **HEMOLYSIS** AST
SDH LARGE ANIMAL, TEST QUICK,
GLDH RUMINANTS, AVIAN
CHOLESTASIS BILE DUCT OBSTRUCTION
ALP ALKALINE PHOSPHATE
ALP LIVER, BONE, CARTILAGE, INTESTING, PLACENTA
STEROIDS CAUSES INCREASE IN ALP
ALP IS INCREASED IN YOUNG ANIMALS BECAUSE OF ACTIVE BONE
ALP IS FOUND IN DOGS AND CATS
GGT GAMMA GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE
GGT LIVER, KIDNEY, PANCREAS, INTESTINE, MUSCLE
GGT OBSTRUCTIVE LIVER DISEASE
GGT IS FOUND IN CATS AND DOGS
HEPATO LIVER
BILIARY GALLBLADDER
AST IS PRODUCED IN RENAL MUSCLES AND PANCREAS
AST IS THE LATER PART OF DISEASE PROCESS
ALP PRODUCTION ENZYME NORMALLY HIGH IN YOUNG OR SOME STEROIDS OR WITH CUSHINGS DISEASE
WHEN GGT IS HIGH USUALLY AN OBSTRUCTION
IF ALP IS UP AND GGT IS NORMAL IT IS NOT AN OBSTRUCTION
BILIRUBIN TOTAL CONJUGATE (DIRECT);UNCONJUGATED (INDIRECT)
BILIRUBIN CAUSES JAUNDICE, LIVER FUNCTION, BILE DUCT PATENCY
INCREASE CONJUGATE LIVER DAMAGE, BILE DUCT INJURY OR OBSTRUCTION
INCREASE UNCONJUGATED RBC DESTRUCTION
BILE ACIDS ARE MADE BY LIVER
BILE ACIDS ARE STORED BY GALLBLADDER
BILE ACIDS POST-PRANDIAL HIGHER THAN FASTED
BILE ACIDS DECREASES MALABSORPTION
CHOLESTEROL IS MADE BY THE LIVER
CHOLESTEROL INCREASES CHOLESTASIS, LOW T4, CUSHINGS, DM
CHOLLESTEROL IS NOT USEFUL ALONE
KIDNEY ASSAYS BUN, CREATININE, BUN/CREAT RATIO, URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO, GFR FUNCTION
BUN BLOOD UREA NITROGEN
BUN INCREASES; PRE-RENAL DEHYDRATION
BUN INCREASES; RENAL KIDNEY DISEASE
BUN INCREASES; POST-RENAL OBSTRUCTION
BUN DECREASES; UREASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA CONTAMINATION. STAPH, PROTEUS, KLEBSIELLA
BUN DECREASES; LIVER
CREATININE BEST INDICATOR OF RENAL DISEASE PROGRESSION OVER TIME
INCREASE OF CREATININE DECREASE GFR
DECREASE OF CREATININE POST PRANDIAL
BUN/CREATINE RATIO USED TO EVALUATE STATUS DURING TREATMENT
BUN/CREATINE RATION USED TO EVALUATE STATUS DURING TREATMENT DEHYDRATION DIETARY TREATMENT FAILURE OWNER NONCOMPLIANCE
URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO PROTEIN IN URINE IN ABSENCE OF CELLS -> GLOMERULAR DISEASE
URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO NORMAL <1
URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO PRE-RENAL OR FUNCTIONAL : 1-5
URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO RENAL; >5
URINE PROTEIN/CREAT RATIO EARLY INDICATOR OF KIDNEY DISEASE
GFR GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
GFR TRUE FUNCTION TEST
EXOCRINE PANCREAS MAKES INSULIN
EXOCRINE PANCREAS AMYLASE, LIPASE
TLI TRYPSINLIKE IMMUNOREACTIVITY
fPLI FELINE PANREATIC LIPASE IMMUNOREACTIVITY
ENDOCRINE PANCREAS GLUCOSE, STRESS RAISES GLUCOSE IN CATS
ENDOCRINE PANCREAS FRUCTOSAMINE, TELLS WHAT HAS BEEN IN THE BLOOD WITHIN THE PAST 2 WEEKS
AMYLASE PANCREATIC DISEASE
AMYLASE INCREASES WITH DECREASED GFR FOR ANY REASON
AMYLASE 3X NORMAL= PANCREATITIS
LIPASE GRADUAL INCREASE WITH PROGRESSIVE DISEASE
AMYLASE,LIPASE WITH CHRONIC/SCARRED PANCREAS BOTH WILL DECREASE OR BECOME NORMAL
TLI PANCREATIC INJURY
TLI EPI IN DOGS
TLI DECREASES PARALLEL TO DECREASE PANCREAS MASS
fPLI SPECIFIC FOR FELINE PANCREATITS
GLUCOSE INSULIN DEPENDENT
GLUCOSE STRESS
GLUCOSE TIME OF EATING
FRUCTOSAMINE GOOD INDICATOR OF AVERAGE GLUCOSE OVER PREVIOUS 1-2 WEEKS
OTHER ENDOCRINE ADREBICIRTUCAK FYBCTUB TEST ACTH STIM LDDS HDDS THYROID TT4 fT3 T3 TSH RESPONSE
CA CALCIUM
CA BONES, HEMOLYSIS CAUSES SLIGHT DECREASE
P PHOSPHOROUS
P BONES, DECREASES AS CA INCREASES,HEMOLYSIS FALSE RESULTS
NA SODIUM
NA NOT ALTERED BY HEMOLYSIS; IMPORTANT FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION OSMOTIC PRESSURE
MG MAGNESIUM
MG CATTLE, SHEEP, SHOW MUSCLE TISSUES WITH LOW LEVLS
CL CHLORIDE
CL IMPORTANT FOR WATER DISTRIBUTION, OSMOTIC PRESSURE
BICARB BUFFERING, MAINTAING CORRECT PH
CK CREATINE KINASE
LEAD POISONING LEAD PAINT,AMMO, LINOLEUM, CAR BATTERIES, SOLDER, PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, ROOFING MATERIALS
LEAD POISONING BASOPHILIC STIPPLING OF RBC'S, nRBC'S
LEAD POISONING LEAD LEVELS TO DIAGNOSE
NITRATE/NITRITE POISONING RUMINANTS, PIGS, HORSESS DUE TO WRONG FOOD
NITRATE/NITRITE POISONING TEST FOOD, WATER, AND PLANT SOURCES
ANTICOAGULANT RODENTICIDES VITAMIN K,PT,PTT,ACH
ETHYLENE GLYCOL ANTIFREEZE, SPECIFIC TESTS AVAILABLE
Created by: JODY84