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Animal Sciences Exam

Animal Sciences Exam 1

6 Reasons to Domesticate Animals Clothing, Recreation/Companionship, Work/Power, Fuel, Food, Shelter
Percentage of Mice Used in Research 91%
5 Types of Research being conducted with animals Transgenic animals, Diseases, Aging, Organs, and Pharmaceutical Production
How many species of animals have been domesticated? Which animal is particularly tricky? Only 14-24 species and zebras.
Livestock Numbers: Chickens 18.4 Billion
Livestock Numbers: Cattle 1.35 Billion
Livestock Numbers: Sheep 1.08 Billion
Livestock Numbers: Swine 0.94 Billion
Livestock Numbers: Horses 59 Million
Pet Numbers: Cats 75 Million
Pet Numbers: Dogs 59 Million
Total World Food Supply: Calories? Protein? Fat? 16% Calories 37% Proteins 45% Fat
Income Increase= Higher calorie dependence on animals; increase animal product consumption
4 Nations Percentage of Calories from Animal Products; Nigeria, Mexico, US, UK Nigeria: 3% Mexico: 18% US: 27% UK: 30%
Percentage of People in Agriculture in Developing Nations? In Developed Nations? Developing: 54%, Kenya: 74% with 13 Tractors and China: 65% with 995 Tractors Developed: 7%, U.S.: 2% with 4,760 Tractors
What 3 Things Increased Productivity in Developed Nations? Breeding Programs, Nutrition, and Management (Reproduction, Animal Health, Crop yield)
Per Capita Food Costs of China, Mexico, Canada, and Denmark China: 34.9% Mexico: 24.2% Canada: 9.2% Denmark: 27% (due to high taxes and socialism) More Developed the Nation the more reduced the cost of food will be
Percentage of World's Agriculture Land is Unsuitable for Crop Production 60%
Turkeys are native to where? Northern Mexico and Eastern US
Male Turkey Tom
Turkey Broilers 11 weeks to 12 pounds
Turkey Tom 16 weeks to 20 pounds
Turkey Layers 105 eggs annually per hen
Top Five Turkey Consumption Countries; Most to Least Israel, Slovakia, US, France, and Hungary
# Ducks Raised Annually in US; Place it was specialized 22 Million and Suffolk County on Long Island NY
Duck Industry has spread to these 3 States... Wisconsin, Indiana, & Virginia
Marketed Age and Weight of Duck 7 weeks and about 7 pounds
3 Huge Changes in Broiler Industry Technology, Improvements in Production Practices, and Product Marketing
As the number of farms with chickens...the income.... (Fill in ....) Decline, Increase
4 Commercial Chicken Breeds Ross, Cobb, Rhode Island (brown) and White Leghorn
4 Ways that Improved Poultry Management Enclosed Poultry Housing, On-Demand Feeder Line, Mechanically Ventilated Building, and Wire Cages
Most Livestock Farmers Own...In the US Beef Cattle
US Beef Industry= Producers +... Processors + Consumers
4 Specialization into Beef Cattle & Dairy Cattle Improved Breeds Specialized Equipment Specialized Labor Differing Marketing Requirements
Beef Cattle and Dairy Cattle in US (Income) Beef: 47$ Billion Dairy: 27$ Billion
4 Segments of the Beef Industry Cow/Calf (Seedstock & Commercial) Backgrounder/Stocker Feedlot Packer
Seedstock (Beef Industry): Breeding Stock Sell Genetics
Commercial (Beef Industry): Majority of beef producers Calve once per year Castrate All Males Raise calves until weaned
Backgrounders/Stockers (Beef Industry): Purchase Weaned Calves Grow Calves on Cheap Forage Sell after gains couple hundred pounds
Feedlots (Beef Industry): (DRY AND LITTLE HUMIDITY) Purchased weaned or backgrounded calves Dry lot High Concentrate diet with mainly corn grain (70%)
6 Beef Breeds: British, Continental, Angus (prime steak, high maintenance), Hereford (low maintenance), Limousin, and Texas Longhorn
Heifer: Young female about 1 years old
Brood Cow: Constantly used to produce calves
4 Largest Dairy States California, Wisconsin, New York and Pennsylvania
3 Dairy Breeds: Holstein-Friesian (most commonly used), Jersey (good for dairy products not really milk), and Guernsey (most protein)
Life Cycle of Dairy Cow: 1st calving at 2 years of age, Gestation: 9 months, 90 days past parturition start breeding them back
ATO Dairy Automatic Take Offs; used on larger farms and hold many cows but needs labor
AMS Dairy Automated Milking Systems (Robots); used on smaller farms and holds small amounts of cows and needs no labor all done by robot
Bulk Tank Tested for 4 things: Somatic Cell Count Bacteriology Freezing Point Drug Residue
Swine is the ...behind poultry and beef in consumption 3rd
China, European Union and US produce how much pork, respectively? 446 million, 156 million, and 66 million
Breeds of Swine Yorkshire (most popular), Landrace, Duroc, Hampshire
Iowa has ....% of pigs in US 30
4 States known for swine Iowa, North Carolina, Minnesota, Illinois
Swine in the US is located near The Midwest Region
Seedstock (Pig) Sells Genetics
Farrow (Pig) Sow giving birth
Feeder (Pig) Weaned pig from 50-80 pounds
Finishing (Pig) From feeder to market weight
5 Types of Integrated Stages for the Swine Industry Seedstock producer Farrow to Weaning Weaning to Feeder Farrow to Feeder Feeder to Finish Farrow to Finish
Weaning remove piglet at... 14-21 days of age
4 Reasons for Increased Production in Swine Industry Genetics, Nutrition, Management, and Biosecurity
Horse Industry: China, Mexico, US 7 million, 6 million:Mexico and 9 million:US
Recreation for Horses: 25 Billion Dollar Industry in US
US Aquaculture 1.5% of World's Total, Catfish is in Mississippi, Trout in Idaho, and Crawfish in Louisiana (Catfish is a 455$ million)
Fishes are...species which means they secrete... Ammonatelic, ammonia
Goats and Sheep are...eaters Selective
Percentage of Sheep in Tropics and Temperate 40% and 60%
Sheep are mainly in...nations? 5 Nations that are leading in sheep industry Developing; China, Australia, India, Iran, and Sudan
3 Types of Sheep Meat, Milk or Wool
Main US Meat Sheep Breeds Suffolk (main) and Dorset
6 Nutrient Classes Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Minerals Vitamins
Two Types of Water Free-Choice Water from Feed
Types of Carbohydrates Simple Carbs (Starches) Complex Carbs (Fiber, Cellulose and Hemicellulose)
...different amino acids in proteins 25
Essential Amino Acids: Pvt Tim Hall Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Leucine, and Lysine
Main Macro-Minerals Calcium, Phosphorous, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Sulfur, Magnesium, Zinc and Selenium
How many known vitamins? Two Types? 16 known; fat soluble and water soluble
Calcium and Phosphorous are needed for? Bone and teeth development
Sodium, Potassium and Chlorine are needed for? Electrolytes
Sulfur is needed for? Ligaments and connective tissue
Magnesium is needed for? Bone and enzyme co-factor
Fat Soluble Vitamins? A, D, E and K
Water Soluble Vitamins? All B and C Vitamins
Non-Ruminant Animals get their vitamins from where? Their diet unless they eat their own shit; coprophagia
Ruminant Animals get their vitamins from? Vitamin B is from their rumen bacteria and their Fat Soluble from their diet
Humans require how many calories per day? About 2000 Kilocalories per day
Energy Cascade... Gross Energy to Digestible Energy to Metabolizable Energy to Net Energy
Metabolizable Energy is used for... Homeostasis Locomotion etc
Production is another energy use... Growth, milk, eggs, fetal growth and wool
What are Concentrate Feeds? They are high in energy and very digestible, low in fiber and they're a protein supplement
What are Roughage Feeds? Low digestibility and high in fiber
Ruminants get energy from? Volatile Fatty Acids
What parts of the plant cell wall are digestible? Cellulose: Only ruminants can digest it Lignin: Can't be digested by anyone Pectin: Can be digested by both ruminants and nonruminants
Limiting Amino Acids depend on... Diet
Examples of Concentrate Feeds Corn, Barley, Soybeans, Dried Milk, Oats, Wheat and Molasses/Sugar Feeds
Examples of Roughages (Ruminants Diet) Hays, Straws, Whole Corn Plant or Grass (Silages), Fresh Forages
Saturated Fats? Straight chain, solid at room temperature, and no double carbon bond
Unsaturated Fats? Liquid at room temperature, Straight chain, and 1 or more double carbon bond
3 Factors for Ration Formulation Species (ruminants, omnivores...etc), Production cycle feeding (gestation, growing...), Cost
Ruminants Mouth Features (4 Parts) Prehensile tongue, bottom incisors, pad on top, and molars for grinding
Microbial Fermentation... Is the enzymatic digestion and utilization of foodstuffs by bacteria in the GI tract
4 Parts of a Ruminant: 1. Rumen 2. Reticulum 3. Omasum 4. Abomasum
Rumen is used for: And the gallons it holds in a dairy cow? Microbial Fermentation Vat 40 Gallons
Abomasum is like... Our True Stomach & Mucin is made here to protect tissues
Ruminant Sheep is one extra part... Duodenum
Reticulum has a ...appearance and traps... Honeycomb and it traps debris like rocks and metals
Omasum has many... and absorbed here. Many folds and water/vitamins are absorbed here
Pseudo Ruminants: Llama, Alpaca and other new world camelids, they only have 3 chambered stomach
Definition of Absorption Amount of nutrient absorbed following digestion in GI tract
Definition of Digestion Breakdown of foods
Definition of Non-Ruminants Monogastric; they have a single compartment stomach
Definition of Ruminants An animal whose stomach contain 4 compartments (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum): foregut fermenters
3 hormones/whatever in stomach Pepsinogen, Pepsin and Mucin
3 parts of Small Intestine: DJI Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
4 types of Absorption Mechanism 1. Simple Diffusion 2. Facilitated Diffusion 3. Active Transport 4. Carrier Mediated
Cecum is primarily used for... Hind gut bacterial fermentation
The Colon is primarily used for... Water Absorption
In the Poultry GI Tact the Crop is used for.. Storing Food
In the Poultry GI Tact the Proventriculus is used for... Stomach
In the Poultry GI Tact the Gizzard is used for.. Strong muscle to grind
In the Poultry GI Tact the Cloaca is used... To make urine paste and feces mix
In the Poultry GI Tact the Vent is used to... Where the waste is excreted and the egg exits
Created by: wickerhat



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