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Antropology ch 4-7

Key terms

adaptive Favored by natural selection in a particular environment.
alleles A biochemical difference involving a particular gene.
balanced polymorphism Two or more forms, such as alleles of the same gene, that maintain a constant frequency in a population from generation to generation.
catastrophism View that extinct species were destroyed by fires, floods, and other catastrophes. After each destructive event, God created again, leading to contemporary species.
chromosomes Basic genetic units, occurring in matching (homologous) pairs; lengths of DNA made up of multiple genes.
creationism Explanation for the origin of species given in Genesis: God created the species during the original six days of Creation.
dominant Allele that masks another allele in a heterozygote.
evolution Descent with modification; change in form over generations.
gene Area in a chromosome pair that determines, wholly or partially, a particular biological trait, such as whether one's blood type is A, B, AB, or O.
gene flow Exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species through direct or indirect interbreeding.
gene pool All the alleles and genotypes within a breeding population—the "pool" of genetic material available.
genetic evolution Change in gene frequency within a breeding population.
genotype An organism's hereditary makeup.
heterozygous Having dissimilar alleles of a given gene.
homozygous Possessing identical alleles of a particular gene.
independent assortment Chromosomes are inherited independently of one another.
meiosis Special process by which sex cells are produced; four cells are produced from one, each with half the genetic material of the original cell.
Mendelian genetics Studies ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across the generations.
mitosis Ordinary cell division; DNA molecules copy themselves, creating two identical cells out of one.
mutations Change in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built.
natural selection Originally formulated by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace; the process by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment, such as the tropics.
phenotypical adaptation Adaptive biological changes that occur during the individual's lifetime, made possible by biological plasticity.
population genetics Field that studies causes of genetic variation, maintenance, and change in breeding populations.
random genetic drift Change in gene frequency that results not from natural selection but from chance; most common in small populations.
recessive Genetic trait masked by a dominant trait.
sexual selection Based on differential success in mating, the process in which certain traits of one sex (e.g.color in male birds) are selected because of advantages they confer in winning mates.
speciation Formation of new species; occurs when subgroups of the same species are separated for a sufficient length of time.
species Population whose members can interbreed to produce offspring that can live and reproduce.
theory An explanatory framework, containing a series of statements, that helps us understand why (something exists); theories suggest patterns, connections, and relationships that may be confirmed by new research.
uniformitarianism Belief that explanations for past events should be sought in ordinary forces that continue to work today.
analogies Similarities arising as a result of similar selective forces; traits produced by convergent evolution.
anthropoids Members of Anthropoidea, one of the two suborders of primates; monkeys, apes, and humans are anthropoids.
arboreal Tree-dwelling.
bipedal Upright two-legged locomotion, the key feature differentiating early hominins from the apes.
brachiation Swinging hand over hand movement through trees, characteristic of arboreal apes and some New World monkeys.
convergent evolution Independent operation of similar selective forces; process by which analogies are produced.
hominoid A member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but excluding chimps and gorillas.
homologies Traits that organisms have jointly inherited from their common ancestor.
m.y.a. Million years ago.
opposable thumb A thumb that can touch all the other fingers.
primatology The study of the biology, behavior, social life, and evolution of monkeys, apes, and other nonhuman primates.
prosimians The primate suborder that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
taxonomy Classification scheme; assignment to categories (taxa; singular, taxon).
terrestrial Ground-dwelling.
A. afarensis Early form of Australopithecus, found in Ethiopia at Hadar ("Lucy") and in Tanzania at Laetoli; dating to the period between 3.8 and 3.0 m.y.a.
australopithecines Varied group of Pliocene–Pleistocene hominins. The term is derived from their former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae; now they are distinguished from Homo only at the genus level.
bipedalism Upright two-legged locomotion, the key feature differentiating early hominins from the apes.
gracile opposite of robust.
hominid A member of the taxonomic family that includes humans and the African apes and their immediate ancestors.
hominin A member of the human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; used to describe all the human species that ever have existed, including the extinct ones, but excluding chimps and gorillas.
Homo habilis Term coined by L. S. B. and Mary Leakey; ancestor or contemporary of H. erectus; lived from about 1.9 to 1.44 m.y.a.
Oldowan pebble tools Earliest (2.0 to 2.5 m.y.a.) stone tools; first discovered in 1931 by L. S. B. and Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge.
robust Large, strong, sturdy; said of skull, skeleton, muscle, and teeth; opposite of gracile.
Acheulian Derived from the French village of St. Acheul, where these tools were first identified; Lower Paleolithic tool tradition associated with H. erectus.
anatomically modern humans (AMHs) Including the Cro-Magnons of Europe (31,000 B.P.) and the older fossils from Skhul (100,000) and Qafzeh (92,000);continue through the present.
archaic H. sapiens Early H. sapiens, consisting of the Neandertals of Europe and the Middle East, the Neandertal-like hominins of Africa and Asia, and the immediate ancestors of all these hominins; lived from about 300,000 to 30,000 B.P.
blade tools The basic Upper Paleolithic tool type, hammered off a prepared core.
Clovis tradition Stone technology based on a projectile point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear; it flourished between 12,000 and 11,000 BP in North America.
glacials The four or five major advances of continental ice sheets in northern Europe and North America.
interglacials Extended warm periods between such major glacials as Riss and Würm.
Mousterian Middle Paleolithictool-making tradition associated with Neandertals.
Neandertals H. sapiens neanderthalensis, representing an archaic H sapiens subspecies, lived in Europe and the Middle East between 130,000 and 30,000 BP.
Paleolithic Old Stone Age (from Greek roots meaning "old" and "stone"); divided into Lower (early), Middle, and Upper (late).
Pleistocene Epoch of Homo's appearance and evolution; began 2 million years ago; divided into Lower, Middle, and Upper.
Upper Paleolithic Blade-toolmaking traditions associated with AMHs; named from their location in upper, or more recent, layers of sedimentary deposits.
How many species of humans are living on earth today? Only 1 species of humans exists today: Homo Sapiens Sapiens
What are the 4 man kinds of apes living today? Gibbons, Orangutans, Gorillas, and Chimpanzees.
What were Dr. Maeve Leakey's three stages in developmental process to modern humans? 1.Bipedality (upright walking) 2.Expanded Manual Dexterity (improved use of fingers and hands, making tools) 3.Encephalization (expansion of the big Hominid brain)
What is the Foramen Magnum & what does it tell us about the hominid evolution? Big hole in bottom of skull where spinal cord connects to brain. located in back = horizontal spine located in base = vertical spine
Created by: 551231446