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VETM Immunology


Immunology Immunology is the study of the reaction of tissues of the immune system of the body to antigenic stimulation
List 6 characteristics of the Immune System Complex.Protection from various infectious agents. Inflammation and repair. Switches off mechanisms that can damage normal tissues. May cause allergies to food,and autoimmune diseases. Eliminate modified or altered cells e.g. malignant cells
Antibody An immunoglobulin molecule produced by B cells in response to an antigen and which can bind specifically to that antigen
Antigen A substance that can combine with elements of a specific immune response whether antibody or cell mediated
Immunity The state of resistance to an infection
Immunisation Administration of an antigen/antibody to an individual in order to confer immunity
Humoral Immunity Immune response mediated by antibodies
Cellular immunity Immune response mediated by cells
Immunogen An antigen which is able to elicit an immune response i.e. stimulate the production of antibody or sensitized lymphocyte
Allergen Substance that induce allergic or hypersensitivity reaction
Immunological memory Immune response triggered as a result of exposure to an antigen
Inflammation The response of tissue to injury which enhance tissue responses and repair
Specificity The ability of an individual antibody-combining site to react with one antigenic determinant or the ability of a population of antibody molecules to react with only one antigen
Innate Immunity Immunity that one is born with. This response is non specific for antigens, eg. barriers against infection, complement, acute phase proteins, interferons, cells such as phagocytic and natural killer cells.
Acquired Immunity (specific for antigens) Is antibody- & cell-mediated and has memory.
Where do the cells of the immune system originate? Stem cells in the bone marrow
What does the stem cells give rise to? Myeloid or Lymphoid stem cells
What does the Myeloid Progenitor (stem) cells give raise to? Erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, monocytes/ macrophages and dendritic cells
What does the Lymphoid Progenitor (stem) cells give raise to? NK, T cells and B cells
What does the lymphoid stem cell give raise to? T-lymphocyte, NK lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte (Plasma Cell)
What does the Myeloid stem cell give raise to? Erythrocyte, Megakaryocyte, Monocyte(Macrophage), Granulocyte
Monocyte gives raise to? Macrophage
B lymphocyte gives raise to? Plasma Cell
What is a function of Megakaryocytes? Blood Clotting
T-cell development The precursor T cells must migrate to the thymus where they undergo differentiation into two distinct types or subsets of T cells, the CD4+ T helper cell and the CD8+ cytotoxic T cell.
What are the two types of T-helper cells produced? Th1 or T helper-1 cell and Th2 or T helper-2 cell
What are the functions of Th1 cell? Help the CD8+ pre-cytotoxic cells to differentiate into cytotoxic T cells
What are the functions of Th2 cell? Help B cells differentiate into plasma cells which secrete antibodies.
Plasma Cell Descend from a single B cell and produce the same antibody which is directed against the antigen that stimulated it to mature. The same principle holds with memory B cells. They remember the stimulus that led to their formation.
Cytokines Any of a number of substances that are secreted by cells of the immune system. They are a category of signaling molecules that are used in cellular communication.
What are Cytokines? Proteins, peptides or glycoproteins
What are the functions of Cytokines? Carry signals locally between cells and have an effect on other cells.
What are some pathogens which replicate intracellularly?? Viruses and some bacteria and parasites
What are some pathogens which replicate extracellularly ? Most bacteria, fungi and parasites)
Difference between infection and disease Infection does not necessarily mean disease, since the immune system in most cases will be able to eliminate the infection. Disease occurs only when the bolus of infection or virulence of the invading organism is high or when immunity is compromised
Four major types of cells of acquired immunity (1)Traps and process antigens and presents them to cells. (2)Have receptors to recognise processed antigen ad produce specific antibodies or cell mediated immunity. (3)Retain memory in case of future encounters.(4)Regulate the immune system
Detrimental effects of the Immune System Chronic inflammation: collateral damage to healthy tissue as a result of the toxic products produced by the immune response. In some cases the immune response can be directed toward self tissues resulting in autoimmune disease
What are the polymorhopnuclear leukocytes of innate immunity? Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Mast cells in tissues, Dendritic cells
What are the mono-nuclear leukocytes of innate immunity? Monocytes/Macrophages, Natural Killer Cells
What white blood cells are found in Acquired immunity? T and B Lymphocytes
What is the most important and abundant leukocyte in blood? Neutrophils
Where are immature and mature Neutrophils formed? Immature in Bone Marrow, Mature forms in Blood
What is lifespan of neutrophils in blood? 6 - 7 hours
What is the duration of neutrophils in infected/damaged tissues? 1 - 2 days
What are the characteristics of neutrophils? 10-20 um in diameter, finely granular cytoplasm, irregular segmented nucleus. Primary and Secondary granules in cytoplasm
Created by: 709746359



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