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Parasit Exam 2

QuestionAnswer
superfamily metastrongyloidea: type of worm? nematode
superfamily metastrongyloidea: class & order class secernentea, order strongylida
superfamily metastrongyloidea: common name lung worm
superfamily metastrongyloidea: life cycle direct or indirect indirect in most species
superfamily metastrongyloidea: what repro stage is passed in feces eggs larvated when passed by female, but hatch in host, so L1 are passed in feces
superfamily metastrongyloidea: what repro stage is passed by female eggs larvated when passed by female, but hatch, so L1 are passed in feces
superfamily metastrongyloidea: where are they found in host's body? trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pulmonary arteries, venous sinuses
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: superfamily? metastrongyloidea
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: host? DH: white-tailed deer (no clinical signs in this host); IH: terrestrial gastropods (snails, slugs)
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: where do they live in host adults live in venous sinuses of meninges & cranial subdural space
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: geographic distribution widespread in easter N america, including piney woods of TX and have been seen in other areas of state as well
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: common name meningeal or brain worm
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: abnormal hosts? effect in abnormal hosts moose, caribou, wapiti, red deer, reindeer, llamas, mule deer, pronghorn, exotic antelope, sheep, goats; death, ataxia, paraplegia; nervous signs from weakness & ataxia to blindness, paresis, death
parelaphostrongylus spp: where do most live in host's body muscle
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: life cycle (birth to DH) F deposits eggs in venous sinuses, carried to lungs, entrap in granuloma; larvae coughed up & swallowed; L1 found on mucus coat on surface of fecal pellets; larvae penetrate foot of gastropod, develop to L3, IH eaten by deer while browsing
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: life cycle (DH+) larvae penetrate GIT wall & (direct migration) cross peritoneal cavity & follow lumbar nn to spinal cord; L3 invade dorsal horns of grey matter, migrate anteriorly. Leave spinal cord 40 days post-infection, go to cranial venous sinuses, produce eggs
parelaphostrongylus tenuis: prepatent pd 3 months
superfamily ascaroidea: class, order class secernentea, order ascaridida
superfamily ascaroidea: where do they live in host free in gut lumen
superfamily ascaroidea: migration of larvae hepatotracheal
superfamily ascaroidea: life cycle direct or indirect direct; paratenic hosts may be involved
superfamily ascaroidea: what repro product is passed in feces thick-shelled, single-celled eggs
superfamily ascaroidea: what stage is infective? where does it develop? L2, in env't, may take up to a month
superfamily ascaroidea: how well do they do in the env't can survive for years
ascaris lumbricoides: where in host do they live small intestine
ascaris lumbricoides: life cycle direct or indirect? direct
ascaris lumbricoides: family ascarididae
ascaris lumbricoides: eggs oval, single celled, thick brownish yellow mammilated shell; readily float; not infective until they contain L2 larvae; development in env't takes 1 month
ascaris lumbricoides: life cycle to DH eggs passed in feces; develop to L2 larvae in env't in the egg; eggs viable for yrs; L2 eggs ingested & hatch in small intestine
ascaris lumbricoides: life cycle - DH+ eggs hatch in SI; hepatic tracheal migration; molt to L3 in liver, L3 reach lung by day 10, larvae coughed up & swallowed, return to SI -> final 2 molts, develop to adults
ascaris lumbricoides: prepatent pd 2 months
ascaris lumbricoides: clinical signs in host pneumonitis, eosinophilia, weight loss, icterus, allergic reaction, diarrhea, constipation
ascaris lumbricoides: common in man? one of the most common parasites of man in the world
ascaris suum: common name swine round worm
ascaris suum: host swine
ascaris suum: life cycle as related to ascaris lumbricoides same, but different host; evidence of cross infection (but infection woulnd't make it past human lung)
ascaris lumbricoides: host man, other primates
ascaris suum: zoonotic? evidence of cross infection (but infection woulnd't make it past human lung)
toxocara canis: family ascarididae
toxocara canis: where does it live in the host small intestine
toxocara canis: host canids (DH), especially puppies; numerous mammals, including man, may serve as paratenic hosts
toxocara canis: what causes most of the pathology migrating larvae
toxocara canis: public health importance visceral larva migrans
toxocara canis: clinical signs in puppies: rough hair coat, pot belly, diarrhea, constipation, poor growth rate, rarely obstruction of bile ducts or other hollow viscera
toxocara canis: life cycle to ingestion by host single-celled egg passed in canine feces develops to L2 in 1 month; when egg containing L2 is ingested by canid the age of the host deterimines to a large extent which migratino occurs
toxocara canis: what repro product is passed in feces? single-celled egg
toxocara canis: infective stage L2
toxocara canis: ingestion by puppies less than 5 weeks of age hepatic tracheal migration, molt to L3 in lung, most to L4 & adult in small intestine
toxocara canis: prepatent period 4-5 weeks if ingested by puppies < 5 wks old; 3 weeks if trans-placental
toxocara canis: ingestion by those older than 5 weeks hepatic aortic migration; no molting in lung; L2 larvae to go somatic tissues; in tissues of bitch, mobilized 35-42 days of preg & transferred to youn g(trans placental is most common)
toxocara canis: trans placental migration most to L3 in fetal liver; migrates to lung then small intestine; eggs passed at 3 weeks of age
toxocara canis: transmammary migration less common than trans placental; only a few L2 enter mammary tissue; no migration occurs in pup, develop in Sm intestine
toxocara canis: paratenic hosts & infection of DH L2 migrate within paratenic host to somatic tissues; canid eats infected tissues; no further migration in dog
toxocara canis: public health human may be paratenic host; hepatic-aortic migration, cause visceral larva migrans; in humans, predilection for larvae to migrate in retina & nervous tissues; damage to retina may cause blindness; condition: visceral larva migrans
superfamily oxyuroidea: class & order class secernentea, order oxyuroidea
superfamily oxyuroidea: common name pinworms
superfamily oxyuroidea: where do they live in host oclon, cecum, rectum
superfamily oxyuroidea: hosts primates, equids, rodents, rabbits, reptiles; none in cats or dogs!
superfamily oxyuroidea: host specificity? very host specific
enterobius vermicularis: common name human pinworm
enterobius vermicularis: superfamily oxyuroidea
enterobius vermicularis: how common are they in humans? most common helminth parasite of humans (usually children) in US
enterobius vermicularis: what repro products are passed by female? eggs (usually at night) around perianal area
enterobius vermicularis: best way to discover eggs? scotch tape test
enterobius vermicularis: eggs oval, usually larvated when seen, slightly flattened to one side
enterobius vermicularis: infective stage L3
enterobius vermicularis: life cycle adults live in rectum; F crawls out of anus to lay eggs - deposited in perianal area, stuck to skin/clothing; egg develops to L3 infective stage in 6 hrs, viable 20 days; hand-to-mouth/aerosol trans; all development in lg intestine of host
enterobius vermicularis: clinical effect to hosts perianal pruritis
enterobius vermicularis: zoonotic? children get pinworms from other children, not pets!; treat all of individuals in family if one is infected
oxyuris equi: superfamily oxyuroidea
oxyuris equi: common name large pinworm of horse
oxyuris equi: host horse
oxyuris equi: eggs single plug on one end; slightly flattened on one side; not recovered by fecal float - rarely found in fecal bolus bcz female attaches them to perianal area (recover eggs by scotch tape test)
oxyuris equi: infective stage L3 egg
oxyuris equi: life cycle relative to enertobius vermicularis same except diff't host and diff't ways of scratching
superfamily spiruroidea: class, order? class secernentea, order spirurida
superfamily spiruroidea: where in the host do they live stomach or anterior (crop, eye, esophagus)
superfamily spiruroidea: eggs thick-shelled, small, larvated; do not normally float
superfamily spiruroidea: life cycle indirect or direct? indirect
superfamily spiruroidea: IH arthropods
superfamily spiruroidea: infective stage L3 larvae in arthropod
superfamily spiruroidea: paratenic hosts? common
physaloptera spp.: superfamily spiruroidea
physaloptera spp.: hosts carnivorous mammals, birds, reptiles, cats, skunks, occ dogs
physaloptera spp.: diagnosis eggs do not float well, may be recovered by sedimentation; more commonly detected by endoscopy or ID vomited worms
physaloptera spp.: life cycle to DH small eggs passed in feces, contain L1, ingested by coprophagous insects (usually bettle larvae), host eats insect = infection
physaloptera spp.: repro product passed in feces small eggs
physaloptera spp.: life cycle - DH+ host eats infected arthropod; L2 larvae released, develop to adults & embed in mucosa of stomach wall; gastric ulcer formed; resulting gastritis may be assoc w/vomiting
superfamily filarioidea: class, order class secernentea, order spirurida
superfamily filarioidea: where do they live in host outside alimentary canal (extra-intestinal); blood vessels, lymphatics, body cavities, ligaments, connective tissue
superfamily filarioidea: what repro product is found in feces? repro products are not found in feces
superfamily filarioidea: hosts DH: mammals, birds; IH: hematophagous (blood sucking) insects
superfamily filarioidea: what repro product do females pass viviparous; produce microfilaria
superfamily filarioidea: microfilariae L1 larvae; in blood, lymph, skin
superfamily filarioidea: direct or indirect life cycle indirect
superfamily filarioidea: life cycle F in DH produce microfilaria (L1); IH ingest L1, develop to L3 w/in malphigian tubules, thoracic mm, or fat body of IH; L3 is infective to DH & is inoculated into feeding wound/deposited on skin & crawls into wound; molt during migration/@ final site
superfamily filarioidea: what repro product do females pass? microfilaria (L1 larvae); viviparous
superfamily filarioidea: infective stage L3 to DH
superfamily filarioidea: resistance? DH become resistant to reinfection & may kill microfilaria (diff't mechanism than resistance); little correlation btwn # microfilaria & # adults; ability to kill microfilaria may be to the detriment of the host
dirofilaria immitis: common name heartworm
dirofilaria immitis: where do they live in host adults in right vetnricle and *pulmonary arteries*
dirofilaria immitis: host IH: mosquito; DH: dogs, sea lions, cats, ferrits
dirofilaria immitis: Dx microfilariae in blood; best recovered & ID'ed by modified Knott test or filtration test; Ag, excretory/secretory products of adult F; thoracic radiography; ultrasound; some L1+ dogs are Ag-; preventative drugs sterilize F = afilaremic but many adults
dirofilaria immitis: where are microfilariae found? blood
dirofilaria immitis: life cycle to DH L1 in dog's blood picked up when mosquito feeds; develop to L3 in mosquito (2 wks, 80F), mosquito feeds on susceptible host, deposit L3 on skin & crawls into feeding site wound
dirofilaria immitis: life cycle - DH+ L3 molts appx 1 week post infection to L4, migrates in subQ tissue, molts to L5/adult stage 60-70 days post-infection; 3 mo's post-inf - migrate perivascularly to right heart, pulmonary arteries
dirofilaria immitis: prepatent pd 6 months
dirofilaria immitis: disease large #s larvae arrive in <3 together = venacaval syndrome (like shock); usual disease = chronic progressive; proliferation of intima of pulmonary aa, occlude smaller brr; pulmonary hypertension -> R <3 hypertrophy & failure
dirofilaria immitis: migration to unusual sites in unusual hosts (cat); anterior chamber of eye, ventricles of brain, lung, etc
dirofilaria immitis: what causes disease? adult worms
dirofilaria immitis: problems with Dx based on finding adult F antigens or microfilaria, neither of which are present until 6 months post-infection
dirofilaria immitis: treatment contraindications some drugs are CI in a microfilaremic dog bcz they rapidly kill microfilaria = shock, death (milbemycin/interceptor, selamectin/revolution, moxidectin/advantage multi); adulticide Tx use arsenic compounds that are toxic
dirofilaria immitis: monthly reventatives macrolides; effective against L3 & L4 stages but are largely ineffective against adults
superfamily trichuroidea: class, order class enoplida, order trichocephalida
superfamily trichuroidea: eggs polar plugs (both sides); exception - genus trichinella produces larvae
Trichuris spp: superfamily trichuroidea
Trichuris spp: common name whipworm
Trichuris spp: host specific? reasonably host-specific
Trichuris spp: where do they live in host cecum
Trichuris spp: hosts most domestic mammals (except the horse!)
Trichuris spp: host specificity? each host has its own species of trichuris
Trichuris suis: host pig
Trichuris vulpis: host dog
Trichuris trichiura: host human
Trichuris spp: eggs barrel shaped w/bipolar plugs, usually brown/golden; heaviest of nematode eggs that float; require specific gravity of 1.18; thick shell; single cell
Trichuris spp: life cycle direct or indirect direct
Trichuris spp: life cycle egg passed in feces; develop to L1 in 2 wks; L1 egg ingested, hatches, release larvae into sm intestine; larvae enter mucosa of SI/LI, molt to L2/3/4/adult in 3-10 days; adult moves into lumen of cecum, thread anterior end through mucosa, feed on blood
Trichuris spp: repro product passed in feces egg
Trichuris spp: infective stage L1; resistant to env't, can live in evn't for years
Trichuris spp: prepatent pd 3 months
Trichuris spp: pathogenic? rarely; may cause typhilitis & bloody diarrhea (mucoid) in humans, dogs, camels, swine
Trichuris spp: what does it feed on blood
Trichinella spp: where do they live in host small intestine
Trichinella spp: direct or indirect life cycle direct
Trichinella spp: what repro products do females lay viviparous (lay larvae)
Trichinella spp: diagnostic stage encapsulated larvae found in musculature of mammals, esp carnivores & omnivores & some avian spp
Trichinella spp: life cycle larvae encapsulated in striated m are ingested by carnivores, L1 freed from cysts & develop in SI to adults in 2-6days; males copulate & die after 7 days; F penetrate mucosal crypts, produce L1 -> migrate through lymphatics, carried to <3 & skel m
Trichinella spp: migration lymphatic-aortic
Trichinella spp: muscle sites of predilection diaphragm, tongue, masseters, intercostals; skeletal muscle cyst = "nurse cell"
Trichinella spp: lifespan of female produce larvae for up to 6 weeks & dies
Trichinella spp: length of infectivity of larvae encapsulated infectivity in 2-3 weeks; cyst may calcify in 6-9 months or may remain vaible for years
Trichinella spp: 4 stages of human disease intestinal phase, invasion; encapsulation; calcification
Trichinella spp: human disease, intestinal phase adults in SI: with diarrhea, colic, weakness; 1-6 days post-infection
Trichinella spp: human disease, invasion phase female in mucosa, begin producing larvae; edema, myositis; edema is espeically noticed in periorbital area; 7-12 days post infection
Trichinella spp: human disease, encapsulation phase capsule forms around larva w/in muscle cell: myocarditis, myositis, nerological signs; 5-6 weeks
Trichinella spp: human disease, calcification phase encapsulated larvae; 6 months to 6 years
Trichinella spp: how do humans get the disease eating raw/undercooked pork, bear meat, seal/walrus meat
Trichinella spp: how is it sustained in nature? rodents become infected by cannibalism or coprophagy of infected carnivores; seals/walruses infected from L1 in sea water
Trichinella spp: resistance resistant to repeat infections after initial exposure bcz adults do not survive long enough to produce larvae
Trichinella spp: how to kill larvae cook meat at 37C/170F or freeze at -15C/5F for 20 days; irradiation; salting/drying at various temperatures
Trichinella spp: detecting larvae europe - swine examined by trichinoscope to find larvae in diaphragm (misses low levels of parasites); serologic testing or pepsin digest of muscle detects lower numbers
Phylum platyhelminthes: common name flatworms
Phylum platyhelminthes: digestive tract? incomplete (lack anus) or absent
Phylum platyhelminthes: diecious or monoecious? monoecious
Phylum platyhelminthes: direct or indirect life cycle? indirect
class turbellaria: phylum? platyhelminthes
class turbellaria: common name free-living carnivorous flat worms
Bipalium kewense: class/phylum? characteristics? turbellaria, platyhelminthes; flat-striped land planarian that feeds on earthworms; occ ingested by cats which vomit them; not parasitic
class eucestoda: phylum? platyhelminthes
class eucestoda: common name tapeworms
class eucestoda: digestive organs? none
scolex head (cestoda/tapeworms)
strobile body (cestoda/tapeworms)
proglottid segment (cestoda/tapeworm); each contains one or more sets of repro organs; continually produced by asexual budding from the anterior; as they mature either gravid proglottids or eggs are expelled from posterior end
class eucestoda: monoecious or dioecious monoecious
class eucestoda: body cavity none; reproductive cavity embedded in parenchyma
class eucestoda: mouth/alimentary tract? none; nutrition absorbed through cuticle
class eucestoda: how does worm attach? scolex; 4 suckers (acetabulae) or two elongate slits (bothria); rostellum with hooks may be present for aid in attachment
class eucestoda: direct or indirect life cycle? indirect
class eucestoda: where do they life in host? intestinal tract of DH; tissues of IH
order cyclophyllidea: class? eucestoda
order cyclophyllidea: what is on the scolex? 4 suckers and a rostellum (may be armed with hookes, unarmed w/o hooks, or retractable & armed)
order cyclophyllidea: what are passed in feces? gravid segments, not eggs
order cyclophyllidea: when is a segment mature? production of sperm and eggs; immature segments contain developing reproductive organs of both segments
order cyclophyllidea: what happens in a gravid proglottid? uterus fills with eggs & repro organs atrophy; breaks off & passed out of host in feces; moves away from feces
order cyclophyllidea: how are eggs expelled? through a genital pore, or segment splits open releasing eggs (outside host body) into env't
order cyclophyllidea: how does it do in env't? eggs have thin outer membranes which are often lost, but enbryophore is resistant to env't
order cyclophyllidea: embryophore contrains hexacanth embryo, a larval stage w/6 hooks
order cyclophyllidea: identification? egg or embryophore of cyclophyllidean tapeworms will float & can be identified by the presence of hooks of hexacanth embryo; proglottids observed in fresh feces more commonly than eggs on fecal float
order cyclophyllidea: life cycle IH ingests embryophore, releases hexacanth; hexacanth migrates through intestinal tract of IH to predilection site w/in host's body; DH ingests IH
family dilepididae: order/class? order cyclophyllidea, class eucestoda
dipylidium caninum: family? order? class? family dilepididae, order cyclophyllidea, class eucestoda
dipylidium caninum: common name? double pored tapeworm
dipylidium caninum: host? DH: dogs, cats, occ humans; IH: flea (larvae)
dipylidium caninum: body cavity? none
dipylidium caninum: monoecious or dioecious monoecious
dipylidium caninum: where in the host do they live? small intestine of DH (attach by armed rostellum & suckers)
dipylidium caninum: how many complete sets of repro organs per proglottid? 2
dipylidium caninum: relative length/width of segments (immature vs adult) immature: wider than long; mature: square/elongate
dipylidium caninum: how many pores per proglottid? 2; one on each side
dipylidium caninum: repro product egg baskets; each egg contains hexacanth embryo
dipylidium caninum: larval stage cysticercoid; develop in flea
dipylidium caninum: life cycle to IH gravid proglottids crawl out of anus of DH & cause perianal pruritus; if segment is crushed, release eggs (also due to movement of proglottid); fleas & lice serve as IH
dipylidium caninum: clinical symptoms perianal pruritus; scootching butt
dipylidium caninum: IH fleas, lice
dipylidium caninum: most common IH ctenocephalides felis (common cat flea)
dipylidium caninum: life cycle IH - DH flea larvae ingest embryophore; hexacanth embryo tears through GIT of flea, becomes cysticercoid; by the time flea larvae has pupated & emerged as an adult flea, cysticercoid is infective
dipylidium caninum: define cysticercoid solid cyst-like structure containing the protoscolex
dipylidium caninum: life cycle DH + DH becomes infected by eating adult flea containing a cysticercoid; protoscolex is freed w/in intestine, and attaches to intestinal wall & begins development; gravid segments will be produced in 2-4 weeks
family taeniidae: class, order? class eucestoda, order cyclophyllidea
taenia saginata: family, order, class? family taeniidae, order cyclophyllidea, class eucestoda
taenia saginata: common name beef tapeworm; beef measles
taenia saginata: where is it found in host small intestine of DH (human); prefer mm with high blood flow (masseter, tongue, heart, diaphragm) but any muscle will do in IH
taenia saginata: host DH: human, IH: cow
taenia saginata: what is on the scolex 4 suckers; unarmed (other taenia species have armed scolices)
taenia saginata: proglottids have how many pores? 1
taenia saginata: how many sets of repro organs in mature proglottids? 1
taenia saginata: what is in a gravid proglottid lost all repro organs except egg-filled uterus (branched)
taenia saginata: DH human
taenia saginata: what kind of repro occurs in DH? sexual (to produce egg)
taenia saginata: egg golden brown, round, thick walled; radial striations, 6 hooks
taenia saginata: clinical symptoms in DH increased flatulence; perianal pruritus
taenia saginata: IH cattle; lives in muscle
taenia saginata: what stage is found in IH cysticercus (larva); small fluid-filled sac-like structure; szie of a pea; invaginated protoscolex
taenia spp: specificity each species is specific as to its type of larvae, the organ it is found in, and its IH
taenia saginata: life cycle adult lives in SI of man; shed proglottids (most passed in feces, some migrate); cow eat eggs in env't; hexacanth embryos enter intestinal wall, picked up by circulation, carried to m capillaries; cysticercus develops in m; infective 10 wks later
taenia saginata: how many eggs produced each day 10 proglottids having 80,000 eggs each
taenia saginata: survival in env't eggs can survive for several months
taenia saginata: time to infectivity 10 weeks after infection
taenia saginata: mm most affected in IH masseters, heart, tongue, diaphragm
taenia saginata: source of infection for humans raw/undercooked beef
taenia spp: define cysticercus translucent fluid-filled cyst with single protoscolex (mammals)
taenia spp: define coenurus translucent fluid-filled cyst with multiple protoscolices (inverted scolicies); mammals
echinococcus: define hydatid cyst opaque, thick walled, fluid-filled cyst with numerous protoscolices w/in daughter cysts (mammals)
many genera: define cysticercoid solid cyst with single interverted scolex; invertebrate
mesocestoides: define tetrathyridium long flattened larvae; vertebrate
taeniids of dogs/cats each have their own spp of Taenia; DH; have worm in SI; ruminants/swine/rabbits are IH for canine, rodents are IH for cat; armed scolices
taenia & echinococcus eggs cannot be differentiated
Taenia multiceps: host IH sheep, DH dog
taenia pisiformis: host IH rabbit, DH dog
taenia taeniaeformis: host IH rodent, DH cat
echinococcus granulosus: disease caused hydatid disease (in IH)
echinococcus granulosus: IH ruminants, swine, macropods, equids, humans; only infected by ingesting eggs passed (in feces) by canids
echinococcus granulosus: DH canids only; become infected by ingesting hydatid cyst in raw offal of IH
echinococcus granulosus: where is adult in DH small intesting of canids
echinococcus granulosus: what is on scolex 4 suckers, armed rostellum
echinococcus granulosus: how many pores per segment one lateral pore per segment
echinococcus granulosus: pathology in canids none
echinococcus granulosus: subspecies DH/IH predator/prey relationships: reindeer/wolves, wallabies/dingoes, horses/hounds, ruminants/canids
echinococcus granulosus: what strain is most often passed to humans? dog/Artiodactyla strain
echinococcus granulosus: zoonotic? yes; very important in many countries; can overtake human's liver, takes many years (= not a problem in sheep bcz of shorter lifespan)
echinococcus granulosus: hydatid cyst stage in IH; fluid-filled, thick-walled, opaque cyst w/germinal membrane; brood capsules, & daughter cysts develop from germinal membrane & contain numerous scolices; hydatid sand = free scolices in cyst fluid; in liver 70%, lungs 25%
echinococcus granulosus: life cycle -> IH proglottids passed in canid feces, eggs released -> IH ingests embryophore w/in egg; hexacanth embryo carried to tissues, cyst develops, produces indiv protoscolices & daughter cysts from germinal layer w/in inner wall; host forms thick wall around cyst
echinococcus granulosus: life cycle IH to DH hydatid cyst is formed in IH; canid ingests cyst in IH
echinococcus granulosus: how does man become infected ingestion of eggs, not cyst
echinococcus granulosus: cases in US arizona, california, nevada, utah; coyotes & sheep dogs, deer & sheep; Navajos, Basque shepherds or their families; mule deer-wolf cycle in Rocky Mountain states
echinococcus granulosus: diagnosis ruminants - cysts found postmortem; dogs-ID adults purged from intestines of a canid, eggs same as taenia
echinococcus granulosus: treatment none in ruminants; praziquantel/epsiprantel in dogs; surgical removal of cysts in man, don't rupture cyst - can cause more cysts; man - metronidazole, albendazole
echinococcus granulosus: control prevent ingestion of raw offal by canids; coyote control
echinococcus multilocularis: host dog/fox, rodent cycle; cats may serve as definitive hosts
echinococcus multilocularis: public health? serious! multilocular cyst acts as invading tumor in humans
echinococcus multilocularis: Tx/control same as echinococcus granulosus, good hygiene
class trematoda: common name flukes
class trematoda: direct or indirect life cycle indirect
class trematoda: IH snails
class trematoda: body shape flat, unsegmented
class trematoda: body cavity? none; organs embedded in parenchyma
class trematoda: suckers? oral & ventral
class trematoda: common organs useful in ID suckers, caeca, testes, ovary, uterus, vitaline glands
subclass digenea: class? trematoda
subclass digenea: host larval stages in mollusk, asexual reproduction (IH); adult stages in vertebrates, sexual reproduction (DH)
subclass digenea: monoecious or dioecious monoecious (except family Schistosomatidae)
subclass digenea: how do they attach to host? acetabulum (ventral sucker)
subclass digenea: GIT? mouth; blind alimentary tract; no anus
family fasciolidae: class trematoda
family fasciolidae: life cycle direct/indirect? indirect
fasciola hepatica: how many intermediate hosts? 1
fasciola hepatica: common name common liver fluke
fasciola hepatica: where is it found in host? bile ducts
fasciola hepatica: what is notable about its organs? caeca, ovary, testes all branched
fasciola hepatica: eggs large, golden brwn, have operculum (cap) at one end; best recovered by sedimentation
fasciola hepatica: effect on host bile ducts become enlarged, thickened, calcified in chronic infections
fasciola hepatica: DH ruminants & other spp, incl man; sexual repro to produce egg
fasciola hepatica: IH lymnaeid snails; larval stages in snail produced by asexual repro; right handed, triangular antennae; amphibious, prever slightly acidic slow-omving water; live in overflows, drainage ditches, foot prints, tire tracks
fasciola hepatica: life cycle (egg to miracidium) adults in bile duct, produce eggs, expelled in feces; larvae devel req's temp > 10C, 9-15 days; egg hatches in fresh water in daylight; ciliated larva (miracidium) escapes egg through operculum & must find suitable snail w/in a few hours or it dies
define miracidium ciliated larvae; wrt fasciola hepatica
fasciola hepatica: life cycle (miracidium - cercaria) miracidium penetrates snail's foot, loses cilia & transforms into sporocyst; redia produced by asexual repro, go to hepatopancreas & may divide into daughter redia; cercaria produced by asexual repro w/in redia (devel 5-8 wks, temp > 10C)
define sporocyst sac-like structure; wrt fasciola hepatica; after miracidium
fasciola hepatica: life cycle (cercaria - marita) cercaria expelled from snail into water; attach to undewater object, lose tail, become encysted metacercaria; DH ingests metacercaria, larval fluke (marita) exits cyst in SI & direct migration in peritoneal cavity 3-4 days -> parenchyma of liver
fasciola hepatica: life cycle (marita+) wanders through liver for 6 weeks, then enters bile duct & matures; adults feed on blood in lumen of bile ducts; eggs exreted w/bile, passed in feces
fasciola hepatica: prepatent pd 10-12 weeks or longer (cattle); 8 weeks (sheep)
fasciola hepatica: how long do adults survive in host years in sheep, up to 2 years in young catle, 6 months or less in cattle which have been repeatedly exposed to infection
fasciola hepatica: disease due to larva may occur during larval migraiton due to tissue destruction & blood loss; secondary disease caused by clostridium spp which proliferate in damaged hepatic tissues
fasciola hepatica: disease due to adults chronic fluke disease is assoc w/adults in bile ducts which have become enlarged & thickened; liver damage -> steroids of repro may not be broken down & metabolized = impaired repro performance
fasciola hepatica: clinical signs anemia, hypoproteinemia, edema, progressive weakness
fasciola hepatica: tx drugs we have are only effective when they get to biliary tract -> can cause lots of problems during migration (treatment prevents others from getting infected, not the animal itself)
fasciola hepatica: infective stage metacercaria (when vegetation they are attached to is consumed)
family schistosomatidae: class trematoda (flukes)
family schistosomatidae: common name blood flukes
family schistosomatidae: where are they found in host? veins of mammals & birds
family schistosomatidae: monoecious or dioecious dioecious
family schistosomatidae: males vs femals male more robust; male elongate w/longitudinal groove (gynecophoral groove) (female lives in groove)
family schistosomatidae: eggs contain miracidium, readily hatch in water; recovered by sedimentation using saline (eggs hatch in water)
schistosoma mansoni: where are they found in the host? mesenteric veins
schistosoma mansoni: DH man, primates, rodents; sexual production to produce egg
schistosoma mansoni: IH discoidal snail; asexual repro; snails love water
schistosoma mansoni: eggs large lateral spine, lack operculum
schistosoma mansoni: infective stage forked tail cercaria by skin penetration
schistosoma mansoni: life cycle (egg to miracidium) M/F adults live paired in mesenteric vv; eggs penetrate wall of mesenteric vv; lateral spine & enzymes help in escape; pass through gut wall, excreted in feces; miracidium develops during passage, egg must be in water to hatch
schistosoma mansoni: life cycle (miracidium+) ciliated miracidium penetrate discoidal snails, 2 generations of sporocyts -> forked-tailed cercaria released from snail; DH infected via skin penetration (enzyme-aided); lose tails & become schistosomules -> lymphatics -> <3-aorta-liver - mesenteric vv
schistosoma mansoni: prepatent pd 6 weeks
schistosoma mansoni: how long can it live in host? 30 years if untreated
define schistosomules immature flukes
schistosoma mansoni: what happens to eggs which fial to penetrate venules into gut wall? carried to liver; granulomas form around eggs -> portal hypertension, hepatosplenomegaly; granulomatous hepatitis
schistosomes: common places to live in host mesenteric veins, urinary bladder; humans, mammals, birds
trapper's itch, swimmer's itch caused by Heterobilharzia americana, a schistosome of raccoons, nutria, dogs; penetrate skin of humans but can't go farther
Heterobilharzia americana: host underdiagnosed schistosome of dogs;
Heterobilharzia americana: effect on host intermittent bloody diarrhea, mypercalcemia;
Heterobilharzia americana: egg eggs contain fully developed miracidium, round to oval, not operculate, lack spine; best recovered by sedimentation using physiological saline; egg containing miracidium readily hatches in water
phylum acanthocephala: common name thorny-headed worms
class trematoda: phylum? platyhelminthes
phylum acanthocephala: body type? pseudo segmented; retractable proboscis covered with hook
phylum acanthocephala: define presoma anterior part of worm; consists of neck & retractable proboscis covered with hooks
phylum acanthocephala: GIT? no mouth, no alimentary tract; nutrients absorbed through cuticle
phylum acanthocephala: body cavity? yes; all of parasite except presoma
phylum acanthocephala: monoecious or dioecious dioecious
phylum acanthocephala: eggs elongate, 3-4 layers, contains acanthor (larva, has small spines at anterior end)
phylum acanthocephala: what repro product is passed larvated eggs (acanthor = larva)
phylum acanthocephala: indirect or direct life cycle indirect
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: phylum acanthocephala
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: DH swine
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: IH dung-feeding beetles
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: direct or indirect life cycle indirect
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: commonname thorny headed worm
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: eggs multi-layered, oval; best recovered by sedimentation
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: life cycle (egg to cystacanth) eggs passed in feces; contain acanthor, resistant to env't; hatches when ingested by larval beetles, pass through gut wall, develop as acanthella in haemocoel, mature into cystacanth (mini-adult) (req's 3 months in beetle larvae)
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: life cycle (cystacanth +) pig eats grub/adult beetle; cystacanth attaches to SI wall & grows to adult (2-3 months); hooks anchor worm to gut wall
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: prepatent pd 2-3 months
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: males vs females females bigger
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: effect on host hooks which anchor worms to gut wall cause inflammatory nodule @ attachment site
Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus: clinical symptoms few parasites = no signs; many = diarrha, blood in stool, anemia, weight loss, peritonitis
what is notable about trichonella's larval stage? intracellular
compare repro products of nematode/trematode/cestode nematode: egg, larvae; tramatode: egg containing miracidium; cestode - egg or segments
define kingdom protista unicellular or colonial organisms; eukaryote
subkingdom protozoa: kingdom? protista
Protozoa: what organelles? membrane-bound nucleus, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, cell membrane
Protozoa: evolutionarily more closely allied with helminths or prokaryotes (bacteria)? helminths
Protozoa: most are free-living or parasitic? free-living
Protozoa: 3 primary functions required for life nutrition, locomotion, reproduction
Protozoa: repro products cyst (ciliophora, retortamonada); oocyst (apicomplexa); spore (microsporida); no eggs!
Protozoa: how are they classified? location (intra/extracell); location (w/in host); life cycle (direct/indirect); repro (asex/sexual); locomotion & method of motility; morphology (size, shape, # nuclei, etc)
define pseudopodia temproary extentions of cell membrane for locomotion, feeding
phylum ciliophora: simple definition ciliated single-celled organisms
phylum amoebozoa: simple definition single-celled amoeboid organisms
phylum retortamonada: simple definition single-celled flagellated organisms with multiple nuclei
phylum parabasalia: simple definition single-celled flagellated organisms
phylum euglenozoa: simple definition single-celled flagellated organisms with kinetoplasts
phylum apicomplexa: simple definition single-celled organisms with apical complex organelle system
phylum microsporta: simple definition primitive spore-forming single-celled organisms
phylum ciliophora: intracell or extracell extracellular
phylum ciliophora: localized where in host GIT of vertebrates
phylum ciliophora: indirect or direct life cycle direct
phylum ciliophora: sexual or asexual repro? asexual by binary fission; sexual repro by conjugation
phylum ciliophora: locomotion? cilia
phylum ciliophora: nuclei? macronucleus (vegetative) & micronucleus (generative)
phylum amoebozoa: intra- or extracellular extracell
phylum amoebozoa: where in host do they live GIT
phylum amoebozoa: indirect or direct LC direct
phylum amoebozoa: sexual or asexual repro asexual by binary fission
phylum amoebozoa: locomotion pseudopodia
phylum amoebozoa: nuclei? one to multiple nuclei
phylum retortamonada: intra or extra cell? extracellular
phylum retortamonada: where do they live in host? GIT
phylum retortamonada: indirect or direct LC/ direct
phylum retortamonada: sexual ojr asexual repro? asexual by binary fission
phylum retortamonada: locomotion? flagella
phylum retortamonada: nuclei? one to multiple nuclei
phylum parabasalia: intracell or extracell? extracellular
phylum parabasalia: localize where in host? gut or repro tract
phylum parabasalia: indirect or direct LC? direct
phylum parabasalia: asexual or sexual repro? asexual by binary fisison
phylum parabasalia: locomotion? flagella
phylum parabasalia: nucleus? single nucleus
phylum euglenozoa: intra or extracell? extracell or intracell
phylum euglenozoa: where do they live in host? localize in blood and/or tissues
phylum euglenozoa: direct or indirect LC? indirect; often arthropod hosts
phylum euglenozoa: asexual or sexual repro? asexual by binary fission
phylum euglenozoa: locomotion? flagellated cells at some stage of LC
phylum euglenozoa: nucleus? single nucleus, additional extracellular DNA called kinetoplast
phylum apicomplexa: parasitic or free-living? all spp are parasitic
phylum apicomplexa: intracell or extracell? intracellular
phylum apicomplexa: place in host? GIT, tissues, blood
phylum apicomplexa: direct or indirect? direct or indirect
phylum apicomplexa: sexual or asexual repro? sexual & asexual repro
phylum apicomplexa: locomotion no cilia or flagella except for flagellated microgametes
phylum apicomplexa: what is it characterized by? apical complex organelle system
phylum microspora: intracell or extracell? intracell
phylum microspora: where in host? GIT or tissues
phylum microspora: direct or indirect LC? usually direct
phylum microspora: sexual or asexual repro? asexual
phylum microspora: locomotion? no obvious locomotion
phylum microspora: what is notable about it? environmentally resistant spore, unique polar tubule extrusion apparatus; normally parasites of invertebrates, fish, occasionally mammals
reproductive products of helminths? eggs, larvae
repro products of ciliates, flagellates, amoeba? cysts
repro products of apicomplexa? oocysts
repro products of microsporidia? spores
phylum ciliophora: free living or parasitic? most are free-living; few are mutualistic or parasitic (important to herbivore digestion: rumen, equine large bowel)
phylum ciliophora: rumen ciliates ob anaerobe; ruminant GIT; utilize plant CHO's indigestible to mammals; form up to 20% of high-digest protein, supply up to 20% VFAs; newborn don't have rumen ciliates, transmission per os; no cyst stage; source of protein/FA when they die
phylum ciliophora: horse ciliates 75 spp in large intesting; important nutrient supply in equine diet; transmission per os; no cysts
Balantidium coli: hosts swine (usually non-pathogen, may be found in ulcers as secondary invader); man/primates; ratites; dog/rat rarely
Balantidium coli: geographic distribution worldwide; cosmopolitan
Balantidium coli: two stages trophozoite, cyst
Balantidium coli: where in host does trophozoite stage live? colon, cecum
Balantidium coli: motility of trophozoite stage motile; surface covered with rows of motile cilia
Balantidium coli: repro of trophozoite repro by transverse binary fission; conjugation (sexual)
Balantidium coli: morphology of trophozoite stage large, oval, contains many food vacuoles
Balantidium coli: cyst stage in the env't environmentally resistant
Balantidium coli: what is the diagnostically important stage? cyst stage; passed in feces
Balantidium coli: repro of cyst stage non-reproducing
Balantidium coli: motility of cyst stage nonmotile; noninvasive (surface not ciliated)
Balantidium coli: infective stage cyst stage; passed in feces
Balantidium coli: life cycle indirect or direct direct
Balantidium coli: transmission fecal-oral; ingestion of environmentally resistant cysts in food/water
Balantidium coli: disease/pathology often asymptomatic; enteritis, diarrhea, dysentery, trophozoites rarely invasive to large bowel mucosa casing flask-shaped ulcerated lesions -> diarrhea
Balantidium coli: diagnosis ID cysts on stained fecal smears; cysts float on fecal flotation but difficult to ID w/o stain (iodine)
Balantidium coli: treatment tetracycline! rather than the usual antiprotozoal drugs; hygiene; scoop poop; limit fecal-oral trans (trophozoites motile in fresh diarrhea, not env'tally resistant)
Balantidium coli: pathogenicity low frequency in vet situations; occasional pathogen
phylum amoebozoa: free living or pathogenic? most are free-living organisms inhabiting soil & water; may be opportunistically parasitic
phylum amoebozoa: how does it get its nutrition? phagocytosis & pinocytosis of organic material & other protozoa
phylum amoebozoa: how do you differentiate between pathogenic & nonpathogenic species? size of trophozoite & cysts; #/morphology of nuclei in cyst; ingestion of RBC by trophozoite; location in host
phylum amoebozoa: control limit fecal-oral trans; H20 quality good; hygiene; trat w/metronidazole; distinguish pathogen from non-pathogen
Entamoeba histolytica: reportable? reportable in human cases! NIH category B potential bioterrorism pathogen
Entamoeba histolytica: host man & other primates; rarely dog, cat, pig, rodents
Entamoeba histolytica: where do they live in host trophozoites localize in lumen of large intestine (cecum, colon); may be invasive to extra-intestinal locations (LNN, liver, lungs, brain, spleen causing visceral amoebic abscesses)
Entamoeba histolytica: geographic distribution worldwide especially in tropics (found along Tex-Mex border); common in developing countries; assoc w/poor water quality
Entamoeba histolytica: trophozoite morphology amorphous, single nucleus; cytoplasm may contain phagocytized RBC's
Entamoeba histolytica: trophozoite repro metabollically active, replicating stage; asexual repro - binary fission
Entamoeba histolytica: invasive stage? trophozoite, found in tissues
Entamoeba histolytica: trophozoite motility? motile; capable of progressive amoeboid movement
Entamoeba histolytica: cyst morphology round; 1-4 nuclei; phagocytized RBC's
Entamoeba histolytica: cyst motility nonmotile
Entamoeba histolytica: cyst in env't environmentally resistant stage
Entamoeba histolytica: infective stage? cyst
Entamoeba histolytica: diagnostically important stage? cyst
Entamoeba histolytica: transmission fecal-oral; ingestion of cysts in contaminated food/water
Entamoeba histolytica: life cycle cyst ingested -> trophozoite is active stage (large intestine) -> distal GIT has low moisture, low nutrients -> cyst stage
Entamoeba histolytica: pathology/disease serious pathogen of man; rarely seen in domestic animals; acute, chornic, and extra-intestinal stages
Entamoeba histolytica: acute disease severe diarrhea with blood, frequent defecation, straining
Entamoeba histolytica: chronic disease mild abdominal pain, flatulence & intermittent diarrhea, chronic carriers possible shedding cysts in feces; ulceration as it invades GI mucosa
Entamoeba histolytica: extra-intestinal disease trophozoites invade other organs via blood stream producing abscesses in liver, lungs, and other organs/locations; may be life-threatening; systemic infection
Entamoeba histolytica: diagnosis ID cysts on stained fecal smears (must be able to count nuclei); direct smear
Entamoeba coli: pathogenic? non-pathogenic
Entamoeba coli: must be differentiated from what parasite entamoeba histolytica
most common amoeba in man entamoeba coli; 22% of US population; occasionally in other hosts; in large intestine
Entamoeba coli: trophozoite morphology amorphous wiht single nucleus; noninvasive, replicating, motile
Entamoeba coli: trophozoite localization in host localize in large bowel
Entamoeba coli: cyst morphology maybe slightly larger than E. histolytica; up to 8 nuclei
Entamoeba coli: diagnostically important stage cyst
Entamoeba coli: environmentally resistant stage cyst
Entamoeba coli: cyst infective or no? infective
Entamoeba coli: cyst motile? non-motile
Entamoeba coli: diagnosis ID & differentiate cysts (# nuclei) on stained fecal smear
phylum retortamonada: common name flagellates
phylum retortamonada: intracell or extracell extracell
phylum retortamonada: reproduction? binary fission
Giardia intestinalis: host human, primates, dog, cat, reported in other spp (calf, sheep, goat); pet birds - diarrhea (giardia psittaci)
Giardia intestinalis: location in host lumen of small intestine (duodenum); extracellular
Giardia intestinalis: geographic distribution worldwide, important cause of enteritis in temperate regions
Giardia intestinalis: inmportance NIH category B potential bioterrorism pathogen; env't contaminant in water quality; opportunistic infection in immunocomp; zoonotic; reportable!
Giardia intestinalis: trophozoite morphology 2 anterior nuclei; dorsally convex, spoon-shaped w/ventral adhesive disk; 2 paired median bodies, 2 paired axonemes, 8 flagella
Giardia intestinalis: what is the metabolically active & replicating stage? trophozoite
Giardia intestinalis: movement little progressive movement; bounces in place
Giardia intestinalis: how does trophozoite do in env't poor survivability
Giardia intestinalis: reproduction binary fission; trophozoite stage
Giardia intestinalis: cyst stage motility non-motile; no external flagella
Giardia intestinalis: morphology 2-4 nuclei; longitudinal axostyle/axoneme rods, median bodies
Giardia intestinalis: environmentally active stage? cyst
Giardia intestinalis: infective stage cyst
Giardia intestinalis: diagnostically important stage cyst
Giardia intestinalis: transmission fecal-oral; ingestion of cyst, freq from contaminated water
Giardia intestinalis: disease giardiasis, rocky mountain lows; recurrent, prolonged, simple diarrhea (smelly, mushy, large volume); asymptomatic carrier states likely; usually afebrile, sometimes intermittent/recurrent
Giardia intestinalis: trophozoites in body not invasive; sit on enterocyte surfaces in small intestine, interfere w/absorption; impact tight jct'ns; cause leakiness in tight jct'ns between enterocytes
Giardia intestinalis: parasitological diagnosis fecal float (ID cysts) - ZnSO4 sp gr >1.18; wet mount w/iodine (cysts); wet mount of fresh liquid diarrhea (trophozoites - spin/flutter motion w/o progressive motility); distiguish between Giardia & trichomonas
Giardia intestinalis: immunological diagnosis several fecal antigen tests available (Idexx SNAP test, Merifluor IFA test, ELISA)
Giardia intestinalis: molecular tests increasingly used to distinguish strains/assemblages to distinguish zoonotic from strains that preferentially infect one host type
family trichomonadidae: phylum? parabasalia
family trichomonadidae: location in host various locations in host depending on parasite spp; GI tract, repro tract
family trichomonadidae: locomotion multiple flagella (multiple anterior, single posterior); undulating membrane; longitudinal axostyle = rod for cell body stability
family trichomonadidae: trophozoite nuclei? single vesicular nucleus/nucleolus
family trichomonadidae: cyst form no cyst form
family trichomonadidae: repro longitudinal binary fission
family trichomonadidae: how are generas named? # of anterior flagella
genera tritrichomonas: family family trichomonadidae
genera trichomonas: family family trichomonadidae
general pentatrichomonas: family family trichomonadidae
intestinal trichomonads: pathogenicity? usually incidental findings, not pathogenic; sometimes pathogenic in dog/cat
intestinal trichomonads: diagnosis ID of motile trophozoites in wet mounts of feces
intestinal trichomonads: motility jerky, progressive (helps distinguish from Giardia intestinalis)
Tritrichomonas equi: host equidae
tritrichomonas equi: where it lives in host caecul, colon
tritrichomonas suis: host swine
tritrichomonas suis: where it lives in host nasal passages, stomach, caecum, colon
pentatrichomonas hominis: host man, primates, dog, cat, mouse, cattle
intestinal trichomonads: transmission direct ingestion of motile trophozoites from fresh feces (no cysts)
tritrichomonas foetus: disease transmitted bovine venereal trichomoniasis: infertility, low calving rates (economically devastating)
tritrichomonas foetus: reportable? to USDA, TX animal health commission; must have bull testing prior to sale/transport into TX
tritrichomonas foetus: host bovine
tritrichomonas foetus: transmission venereal (coitus, AI)
tritrichomonas foetus: location in host superficial repro organs: vulva, prepuce
tritrichomonas foetus: differences in how M/F are affected bulls - chronic, asymptomatic, minimum impact on fertility; cows - transient, early embryonic deaths & abortion in naive cows, infertility
tritrichomonas foetus: diagnosis culture & microscopy of preputial scrapings; PCR molecular test
Trichomonas vaginalis: host human
Trichomonas vaginalis: transmission venereal/ STD
Trichomonas vaginalis: difference in how M/F are affected vaginitis in women; men asymptomatic; not assoc w/abortions/miscarriages
why is Trichomonas foetus more important in a beef herd than dairy herd? dairy = AI; beef = range conditions, large herd size, prolonged breeding season
family trypanosomatidae: phylum? euglenozoa
phylum euglenozoa: common name? hemoflagellates
family trypanosomatidae: two genuses trypanosoma, leishmania
family trypanosomatidae: hosts arthropod (GIT) & mammalian (blood, spinal fluid, tissues); asexual repro only = no DH/IH
family trypanosomatidae: location in host invertebrates: GIT; vertebrates: blood, spinal fluid, tissues
family trypanosomatidae: direct or indirect LC? indirect
family trypanosomatidae: repro longitudinal binary fission
family trypanosomatidae: kinetoplast extracellular DNA that stains similar to nucleus & serves as distinctive feature when identifying organisms histologically/morphologically; location of kinetoplast vs nucleus useful
trypomastigote: family? trypanosomatidae
trypomastigote: genus Trypanosoma
trypomastigote: location in host vertebrate host blood stream
trypomastigote: intra/extracell? extracellular
trypomastigote: where is kinetoplast relative to nucleus kinetoplast posterior to nucleus
trypomastigote: motility flagellum: extends anteriorly; undulating membrane (whole length of body)
epimastigote: family trypanosomatidae
epimastigote: genus trypanosoma
epimastigote: location in host gut of arthropod vector
epimastigote: extra/intracell? extracellular
epimastigote: kinetoplast vs nucleus kinetoplast adjacet & usually anterior to nucleus
epimastigote: motility anterior flagellum; undulating membrane, 1/2 length of body
prostigmagote: family? trypanosomatidae
prostigmagote: genus leishmania
prostigmagote: location in host gut vector of Leishmania
prostigmagote: intra/extracell extracell
prostigmagote: motility anterior flagellum; no undulating membrane
prostigmagote: kinetoplast vs nucleus kinetoplast nearer the anterior end than the nucleus
amastigote: genus leishmania & Trypanosoma cruzi
amastigote: family trypanosomatidae
amastigote: intra/extracell intracell (in tissues of vertebrate host)
amastigote: where does it live in host tissues of vertebrate host
amastigote: shape round/pear-shaped
amastigote: flagellum degenerated internal flagellum
amastigote: kinetoplast vs nucleus creates a double dot or dot-dash appearance w/nucleus & kinetoplast
Trypanosoma spp: stages in vertebrate & invertebrate hosts vert - trypomastigote; invert - epimastigote
trypanosoma cruzi: stages in vertebrate & invertebrate hosts vert - trypomastigote & amastigote; invert - epimastigote
leishmania spp: stages in vertebrate & invertebrate hosts vert - amastigote, invert - promastigote
genus trypanosoma: transmission salivarian (via saliva/mouthparts/bites), stercorarian (via feces of invertebrate into bite wound)
Trypanosoma cruzi: phylum / family phylum euglenozoa; family trypanosomatidae
Trypanosoma cruzi: common names for disease it causes american trypanosomiasis; chagas' disease
Trypanosoma cruzi: hosts vertebrate: man, dog, wild rodents, small wild mammals; invertebrate: family reduviidae - Triatoma spp (mexican bedbug/assasin/kissing/cone-nose bug)
Trypanosoma cruzi: where does the invertebrate host live nests, under tree bark, high organic materials; endemic in southern US
Trypanosoma cruzi: geographic distribution latin america through southern US; brazil, argentina, venezuela
Trypanosoma cruzi: stages in vertebrate host trypomastigote, amastigote
Trypanosoma cruzi: trypomastigote stage is extra or intra cell extracell
Trypanosoma cruzi: where in host is trypomastigote stage peripheral blood during acute stage of infection; vertebrate host
Trypanosoma cruzi: trypomastigote infectivity? infective to bug vector
Trypanosoma cruzi: amastigote stage is intra or extra cell intracellular
Trypanosoma cruzi: where in host does amastigote stage live phagocytic type cells in tissues (vertebrate host); especially loves cardiac muscle
Trypanosoma cruzi: what stage is reproductive? sexual or asexual? asexual; amastigote (within vertebrate host cell), epimastigote in bug gut
Trypanosoma cruzi: how long does amastigote stage live in host persists in chronic infection
Trypanosoma cruzi: transmission is salivarian or stercorarian stercorarian
Trypanosoma cruzi: life cycle invert ingests trypomastigote in blood meal from infected host; epimastigote replicates asexually in gut, then infects vertebrate
Trypanosoma cruzi: how is vertebrate host infected stercorarian; ingest bug - mucous membrane penetration; transplacental (dog, fatal); transfusion/organ transplants (human)
Trypanosoma cruzi: describe the disease it causes in humans? chagas: acute (swelling, lymphadenopathy; blood replication), latent, chronic (megaesophagus, megacolon, cardaic disease) progressive stages of disease
Trypanosoma cruzi: describe the disease it causes in dogs? chronic, progressive dilitative cardiomyopathy (dysrhythmia/conduction disturbances); acute myocarditis; no intestinal problems (unlike humans)
Trypanosoma cruzi: Dx ID trypomastigotes in stained blood films; seriology; histopathology; thoracic radiography showing cardiomegaly; ECG showing electrical conduction disturbances
define DALY # man-years productive work lost due to infection by a parasite (used in reference to Chaga's)
Trypanosoma cruzi: zoonotic? yes; avoid contact w/infected dog's blood
trypanosoma brucei: common name african trypanosomes
trypanosoma brucei: phylum / family euglenozoa / trypanosomatidae
trypanosoma brucei: importance resurgent human infections in central africa; wildlife conservation (wildlife vs cattle production - farmers kill wildlife); reportable disease! could come in imported exotic hoofstock
trypanosoma brucei: reportable? to USDA & texas animal health commission
trypanosoma brucei: geographic distribution 4.5 million sq miles of Africa in fly belt; 50 million cattle at risk in central africa - limiting factor to cattle production
trypanosoma brucei: hosts vertebrate: man, cattle, wild ungulates; invertebrate: tsetse flies (glossina spp) (only on africa continent)
trypanosoma brucei: stages in hosts vertebrate: trypomastigote (no amastigote stage); invertebrate: epimastigote)
trypanosoma brucei: life cycle salivarian transmission, trypomastigote stage multiplies by binary fission in vertebrate blood, tsetse fly ingests blood meal, epimastigote stage multiplies in mid-gut of fly, move to salivary gland/mouthparts
trypanosoma brucei: disease african sleeping sickness in humans; nagana in cattle; acute fatalities; chronic wasting, poor feed conversion, low repro rates, economic losses
trypanosoma brucei: diagnosis ID trypomastigotes on stained blood films
trypanosoma brucei: treatment/control several drugs effective but serious toxicities; fly control! farmers kill wildlife to protect their flock
Leishmania: importance reportable in humans (visceral disease)
Leishmania: geographic distribution latin america, N africa, southern europe, middle east; in TX, sylvatic cycle (fly/rodent), occasionally dog/cat/man; concern to military in Mid East
Leishmania: host vertbrate: man, rodents, canids (visceral), cats (cutaneous), other wildlife; invertebrate: sandfly genera (Lutzomyia-new world, Phlebotomus - old world)
Leishmania: two stages amastigote (intracell, vert hosts-phagocytic cells), promastigote (extracell, midgut of fly)
Leishmania: amastigote stage is extra/intracell intracell; phagocytic cells of vertebrate host
Leishmania: amastigote lives where in host phagocytic cells of vertebrate host
Leishmania: promastigote stage is extra/intracell extracell
Leishmania: promastigote lives where in host midgut of fly vector
Leishmania: direct/indirect LC indirect
Leishmania: life cycel amastigote ingested by fly while feedign on infected vertebrate host; vertebrate host infected through parasite transmission by fly bite (salivarian)
Leishmania: pathology/disease - 3 forms cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral
Leishmania: cutaneous disease chronic ulcerated skin lesions (humans, rodents, cats); ears/face of cat - nodules, not ulcerated: Leishmania mexicana
Leishmania: mucocutaneous disease chronic ulcerated, eroding skin lesions (mouth, nose, rectum, vulva, penis); latin american, human; Leishmania brasiliense
Leishmania: visceral disease chronic debilitating, wasting; parasites in liver, spleen, bone marrow; anemia, hypoproteinemic; fatal; mostly in humans, occ dogs; L. donovani (asia, africa); L. infantum (mediterranean/mid east), L. chagasi (S america)
Leishmania: diagnosis ID amastigotes in impression smears, aspirates, biopsy, histology; tissue culture; serologic tests; specific Ab detection test
phylum apicomplexa: genuses in gut eimeria, isospora, cryptosporidium parvum
phylum apicomplexa: genuses in gut & tissue toxoplasma gondi, neospora caninum, sarcocystitis neurona
phylum apicomplexa: genuses in blood babesia, plasmodium
phylum apicomplexa: intra/extracell? intracellular
what phylum has the largest number of most common cprotozoa of med/vet importance? phylum apicomplexa
phylum apicomplexa: direct or indirect LC? direct in gut; indirect in tissue, blood
phylum apicomplexa: apical complex? organelle system in zoites; important to host cell invasion; conoid + rhoptry
phylum apicomplexa: sexual or asexual repro? both (can use DH/IH)
phylum apicomplexa: genera found in the gut are commonly known as? coccidia
genera eimeria: host spp herbivores, avian
genera (cysto)isospora: host spp carnivores
genus eimeria: phylum? apicomplexa
genus eimeria: host specificity? host specific
genus eimeria: location in host? specific for location in host (SI, cecum, upper LI, etc); GIT; specific for cell type/tissue layer invaded
genus eimeria: hosts of veterinary importance poultry, herbivores (cattle, sheep, goats, piglets, rabbits - primarily young animals) poultry
genus eimeria: life cycle direct or indirect direct
genus eimeria: four stages of life cycle? sexual/asexual? sporogony, merogony, gamogony (all asexual repro); syngamy (sexual)
genus eimeria: diagnostic stage? oocyst
genus eimeria: LC - sporogony oocysts unsporulated, noninfective in fresh feces; asexual replication -> sporocysts w/sporozoites (infective, replicating stage that invade host gut cells) (in env't)
genus eimeria: where are oocysts found in env't
genus eimeria: infective stage sporulated oocysts
genus eimeria: sporulated eimeria vs isospora eimeria: 4 sporocysts each w/2 sporozoites; isospora: 2 sporocysts each w/4 sporozoites
genus eimeria: LC - merogony (schizogony) intracell asex repro: ingested sporulated oocysts excyst in stomach, reslease sporozoites into intestine, asex multiplication = multiple merozoites w/in host cell; 2+ cycles of merogony (rupture host cell, invade other cell, replicate, repeat)
genus eimeria: LC - gamogony development of gametes: merozoites enter into new host cells develop into gamonts containing gametes (macrogamonts w/single macrogamete - beady eosinophilic staining) (microgamonts w/many microgametes - thready basophilic)
genus eimeria: LC - syngamy sexual repro: microgametes fertilize macrogamete = zygote, evn't resistant wall develops = oocyst; unsporulated oocyst released from host cell into feces; in env't sporogony occurs (new cycle)
genus eimeria: transmission fecal-oral; ingestion of sporulated oocyst; must undergo sporogony in env't
genus eimeria: clinical signs enteritis, diarrhea (mucus/blood); poor weight gain, emaciation, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance; secondary bacterial invasion into damaged tissues; generally severe in young (death)
genus eimeria: coccidiasis infected, oocysts found; w/o clinical signs/disease
genus eimeria: coccidiosis infected w/clinical signs +/- oocysts (diarrhea possible in prepatent pd)
genus eimeria: coccidiosis in poultry growing birds in houses; production loss; sample bedding for oocyst counts
genus eimeria: effect in cattle mostly grower cows; diarrhea; sporadic problem in stressed herds; production loss, rarely fatal
genus eimeria: what does pathogenicity depend on? species of emeria; type/maturity of host cell invaded; # meront generations; degree of immunity of host; size of inoculum
genus eimeria: immunity acquired from previous exposure; older animals more likely resistant; stress/concurrent infection will increase chance of disease; size of challenge inoculum of oocysts
genus eimeria: Dx ID oocysts on fecal float (morphology - size, shape, micropyle); unsporulated oocysts in fresh feces, sporulated oocysts in old feces
genus eimeria: Tx prevention/management; add coccidiostats to feed/water; no single treatment is effective (need to be continuous or intermittent administration); poultry - attenuated oocyst, oral vaccine
genus isospora: phylum apicomplexa
genus isospora: host carnivore (dogs, cats, immunocompromised humans); host specific - humans NOT infected from pets
genus isospora: LC direct/indirect direct; same as eimeria (sporogony, merogony, gamogony, syngamy)
genus isospora: transmission fecal-oral; ingestion of sporulated oocysts
genus isospora: disease just like eimeria; enteritis/diarrhea in puppies/kittens, rarely fatal; infection possible in older animals w/o clinical disease
genus isospora: Dx ID unsporulated oocysts on fecal float
Cryptosporidium parvum: phylum apicomplexa
Cryptosporidium parvum: importance NIH category B potential bioterrorism pathogen; reportable in humans
Cryptosporidium parvum: clinical signs diarrea (profusely liquid), usually self-limiting
Cryptosporidium parvum: where does it live in host gut (coccidian)
Cryptosporidium parvum: host not host specific: humans, cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, cats; zoonotic! especially problem in neonatal animals
Cryptosporidium parvum: intra/extracell intracell, extracytoplasmic
Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity immediately infective when passed in fecal material -> doesn't have to sit in env't
Cryptosporidium parvum: control EPA - water quality
family sarcocystidae: phylum? apicomplexa
family sarcocystidae: where are they found in host gut & tissues
family sarcocystidae: direct or indirect life cycle? indirect; predator-prey
family sarcocystidae: where do they live in mammalian hosts? tissue & enteric stages
family sarcocystidae: oocysts produced where in host? which host? intestine of DH (predator)
family sarcocystidae: asexual stages where? what host? tissues of IH (prey)
Toxoplasma gondii: phylum/family? apicomplexa / sarcocystidae
Toxoplasma gondii: host DH: cats only; IH: any mammal & birds (esp rodents, swine, sheep, humans - NOT cattle)
Toxoplasma gondii: where is it located in DH intestinal stages (produce oocysts) - small intestine
Toxoplasma gondii: intracell or extracell in IH? intracell
Toxoplasma gondii: where does it live in IH? intracellular; extraintestinal tissues - brain, spleen, liver, muscle
Toxoplasma gondii: stages in IH tachyzoites, bradyzoites
Toxoplasma gondii: tachyzoite stage - which host? where? activity? IH; rapidly replicating (asexual) zoite stage; phagocytic cells; metabolically active
Toxoplasma gondii: tachyzoite stage is sexual or asexual repro asexual
Toxoplasma gondii: bradyzoite stage - which host? where? activity? IH; zoite stage in tissue cysts in chronic, quiescent infections
Toxoplasma gondii: geographic distribution worldwide
Toxoplasma gondii: importance zoonotic potential, public health; food safety; NIH category B potential bioterrorism pathogen
Toxoplasma gondii: LC - DH infected by ingestion of tissue cysts from IH (predation), ingestion of sporulated oocysts; rarely transplacental; merogony, gamogony, sygamy in gut; sporogony in env't
Toxoplasma gondii: LC - IH infected by ingestion of sporulated oocysts, ingestion of tissue cysts from another IH, transplacental transmission of tachyzoites
Toxoplasma gondii: disease/pathology transient, usually asymptomatic in cat; long-term infection w/tissue cysts in IH usually asymptomatic; poss systemic/neurologic/encephalitis disease in immunocomp IH; abortions w/primary infection in early gestation (human, sheep) (transplacental trans)
Sarcocystitis neurona: disease caused? equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM); neurologic disease in horses
Neospora caninum: disease caused? neurologic disease - puppies; abortions/repro problems - cattle; dog/cow cycle similar to toxoplasma gondii
family babesiidae: phylum apicomplexa
family babesiidae: where is it found in host blood
family babesiidae: direct or indirect LC indirect (mammal/arthropod)
family babesiidae: host IH: mammal (piroplasms found in mammalian RBC) (dog, cow, horse); DH: hard ticks
babesia bovis: IH cow
babesia bigemina: IH cow
babesia gibsoni: IH dog
babesia canis: IH dog
babesia (theileria) equi: IH horse
babesia caballi: IH horse
family babesiidae: importance USDA reportable in cattle & horses, NOT dogs - texas cattle fever, important at tex-mex border
family babesiidae: geographic distribution worldwide, depending on particular parasite spp
family babesiidae: where do they live in mammalian hosts? piroplasms (trophozoite) live in mammalian host RBCs (intracell)
family babesiidae: piroplasms are intracell or extracell? asex or sex repro? intracell (in mammalian RBC); asex
family babesiidae: LC piroplasms in RBC multiply asex, lyse host cell, multiple cycles; tick ingests during blood meal, merogony (schizogony) in gut wall, gamogony in tick gut, zoite migrate to tick salivary gland, develop into infective sporozoite stage; may invade ovary/eggs
family babesiidae: infective stage sporozoite
family babesiidae: transmission parasites in tick saliva while feeding on mammal; transovarian (tick F to offspring), transstadial (parasites in tick through molting)
family babesiidae: clinical signs anorexia, listless, weakness, dehydration, anemia; fever; icterus, hemoglobinemia/uria; lysis of RBC's; severe & acute or subacute/chronic; LNN/splenic enlargement
family babesiidae: Dx parasitological: microscopy, ID intra-RBC organisms (piroplasms, usually paired), best in acute stage of disease, carriers may have low parasitemias; Immunological - serology better during carrier state
family babesiidae: cow spp are transovarial or transstadial trans? transovarial; tick is 1 host
family babesiidae: dog spp are transovarial or transstadial trans? transstadial; tick is 3 host
family babesiidae: horse spp are transovarial or transstadial trans? transstadial; tick is 3 host
babesia bigemina: importance texas cattle fever; red water; piroplasmosis; babesiosis; first proven arthropod-borne disease agent; border issues/livestock transport w/mexico & latin america
babesia bigemina: vectors boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus (1-host life cycle)
babesia bigemina: transmission transovarial; nymphal tick transmits piroplasms
babesia bigemina: geographic dist tropics; mexico through s america
babesia bigemina: large or small babesia of cattle? large
babesia bovis: alternate name babesia argentina
babesia bovis: large or small babesia of cattle? small
babesia bovis: vector boophilus microplus
babesia bovis: transmission transovarial; larval tick transmits piroplasms to next mammalian host
babesia bovis: clinical signs? typical of babesias; additional CNS disturbances
family plasmodidae: phylum? apicomplexa
family plasmodidae: where is it located in host? in the blood
family plasmodidae: disease caused malaria (ague, the shakes); reportable in humans; cyclic fever, chills, anemia/hemolysis, hematuria, often fatal; cerebral disease w/P. falciparum
family plasmodidae: hosts IH: human; DH: anopheles spp mosquito
family plasmodidae: species in humans P. falciparum (most important as cause of death); P. vivax (most common); P. malariae; P. ovale
family plasmodidae: LC sporozoites inoculated into vertebrate (salivarian), zoites multiply asex in liver cells; cycles of replication in RBC; gamogony in RBC of vert IH; gamonts ingested by mosquito DH; syngamy/sporogony in mostquito gut; sporozoites transmitted - salivarian
family plasmodidae: transmission salivarian
phylum microspora: importance NIH category B agents w/bioterrorism potential
phylum microspora: pathogenicity mostly non-pathogenic
phylum microspora: intra or extracell? intracell
phylum microspora: how common are they? ubiquitous in env't
phylum microspora: hosts multiple parasite spp for almost every vertebrate & invertebrate class of animal
phylum microspora: characteristic morphologic features coiled polar tubule & anchoring disk organelles; 3 layered, chitin-coated env'tally resistant spores; membrane-bound nucleus may be single or double (diplokaryon)
phylum microspora: transmission ingestion of resistant spores from env't; congenital transmission (mother to fetus via placenta)
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: disease in rabbits usually causes asymptomatic infections; chronic progressive neurologic disease, head tilt, circling, ataxia; wry neck
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: disease in rodents occasionally asymptomatic infection in lab rodents
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: disease in dogs rarely causes fatal neurologic/renal disease in 5-10 week old puppies; head tilt, circling, head pressing, ataxia, rapidly progressive until death
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: disease in humans rare in immunodeficient humans (systemic or CNS infection)
Encephalitozoon cuniculi: Dx stain feces/urine for spores; histologic ID of organisms in tissue (gut/tissue biopy for intracell stages); EM for definitive diagnosis; serology in rodents/rabbits
Enterocytozoon bieneusi most commonly IDed microsporidian in humans (up to 30% of AIDS patients); intracell in small intestinal epithelium, causes chronic diarrhea
Encephalitozoon (septata) intestinalis second most common microsporidial infection reported in man; gut assoc organism causing chronic diarrhea in AIDS patents
Encephalitozoon hellem 3rd most frequently ID'ed organism in immunocompromised humans; respiratory, ocular disease (sometimes systemic/fatal); ID'ed in anumber of avian hosts, might be a bird parasite
whta does ctenocephalides felis transmit dipylidium caninum
Created by: shelbell8389