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Cardio Diseases


Tachycardia Abnormally Fast HR
Bradycardia Abnormally Slow HR
Cardiomegaly Abnormally Large Heart
Microcardia Abnormally Small Heart
Syncope Collapse due to porr CO
Dyspnea Abnormal respiration
Orthopnea Difficulty breathing while laying down
Pulmonary Edema Accumulation of fluid in the air-spaces of the lungs.
Pleural Effusion Accumulation of fluid outside of lungs, between the chest wall and lungs.
Digoxin Increase contractility, (+ inotrope) increase cardiac output, diuresis, brady cardic.
Enalapril ACE Inhibitor and Vasodilator
Furosemide LASIX, Loop diuretic
Propanolol Beta-blocker (a dtug used to decrease sympathetic effects), decreases myocardial O2 demand, and decreases HR
Sotalol Beta-blocker and antiarrhythmic
Diltiazem Ca2+ channel blocker, decreases contractility, reduces BP and afterload
Lidocaine Used to treat V Tach and V Fib
Atropine Blocks action of parasympathetic nervous system. Used shor term for bradycardia. Stableizer.
Glycopyrrolate Blocks action of parasympathetic nervous system. Used short term for bradycardia. Stableizer.
Immiticide Kills adult Heartworms. Melarsomine dihydrochloride.
Echocardiogram Ultrasound "sonogram" of heart +/- doppler.
Cardiomyopathy A disease of the muscle part of the heart.
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Aquired disease that results in thin, flabby, poorly contractile heart muscle and an enlarged lumen (chamber). Highest Rate: Older, giant breed dogs! (Dobies)
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Left ventricle hypertrophies. (Grows really thick and makes lumen really small)
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy "Boxer Cardiomyopathy" Right heart enlargement and right heart failure May hear a murmur.
Right Heart Failure Right side of the heart does not function correctly, blood will be backed up in the venous system of the body.
Left Heart Failure Left side of the heart does not function correctly, blood will back up in the lungs, causing pulmonary venous congestion and pulmonary edema.
Mitral Valve Left AV Valve
Chronic Mitral Valve Insufficiency CMVI - Endocardiosis Most common in small/toy breed old dogs Most common heart disease in dogs AV Valve has defective connection tissue.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus PDA DA that is not closed after birth "3 knuckles" left auricle
Subaortic Stenosis SAS Large-breed dogs, develops after birth, endocardium thickens right below aortic valve. Obstruction leads to LV & LA hypertrophy, aortic dilation, LCHF
Persistant Right Aortic Arch PRAA Normally gores away during fetal development, if it persists, wraps around esophagus and causes reguritation
Atrial Septal Defect ASD (Patent Foramen Ovale) Blood shunts from L to R, causing R heart overload. Normally, foramen ovale closes just after birth.
Ventricular Septal Defect VSD Blood shuts from R to L, causing LH overload
Teratology of Fallot A collection of defects: Pulmonic Stenosis RHCM VSD Over-riding Aorta
Valvular Dysplasia Abnormal connective tissue that degenerates with age
Diaphragmatic Hernia Can be congenital or acquired
Pulmonic Stenosis PS Abnormal pulmonic valve
Thromboembolism Blood clot
Atrial Fibrillation A Fib Also known as supraventricular arrhythmia. Large dogs and horses. Low CO, syncope, tachycardia with arrhythmia
Ventricular Tachycardia V Tach Usually associated with heart disease or electrolyte abnormalities Decreases CO, can lead to VFib and death.
Sinus Arrhythmia NORMAL!! (Except in cats) Caused by respiration. a regularly irregular arrhythmia.
Sinus Bradycardia seen in large breed dogs, athletes, brain swelling, hyperkalemia, hyperthyroidism. Can use Atropine or Glycopyrrolate
Premature Ventricular Contractions PVC The ventricle is contracting faster than the SA node is firing Leads to VTach
Pericardial Effusion Fluid in the sac (pericardium) that covers the heart. Either blood or clear fluid.
Natural Pacemaker SA Node
Artificial Pacemaker A small unit placed under the skin that creates an electrical impulse in the RA
Stroke Volume SV Volume of blood ejected from the heart with each contraction
Cardiac Output CO SV x HR
Afterload Amount of blood in heart after each contraction (in diastole)
Fibrillation Uncoordinated electrical impulses leading to uncoordinated contraction
CHF Congested Heart Failure
Endocarditis Inflammation of the lining of the chambers of the heart
Heartworm Disease Dirofilaria immitis
Created by: kelseylink