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Virology Exam 3 P2

Canine Parvo, Corona, Herpes, Rotavirus

QuestionAnswer
In the dog, how many genetically distinct Parvorviruses are there? what are they? 2: CPV-2 which is a paravovirus and CPV-1 (Bocavirus)
Which subtype is the major cuase of viral diarrhea in the dog? CPV-2
Which is the most common variant of CPV-2? CPV-2b is most common, but CPV-2c is also in the USA
CPV-2 arose from a mutation in which feline virus? feline panleukopneia virus
What is the common name for CPV-1? Minute virus of canines (Bocavirus), not a significant pathogen, cuases mild diarrhea
T/F all Canidae are susceptible to CPV-2 (including dogs,foxes, coyotes, wolves)? True
T/F most adult dogs that get infected with CPV-2 will have severe hemmorrhagic diarrhea? False-they normallly get subclinical dz but can still shed the virus
Severe clinical CPV2 dz is MC in what age range? 6wks-4months (when maternal antibody is declining)
T/F CPV2 is highly contagious and very stable in the environment? True
How are most infections of CPV2 transmitted? contact with contaminated feces in the environment
T/F people, instruments, insects and rodents can transmit parvo? true
How long can parvo survive on surfaces and in the soil? 5 months on surfaces, 1 year in the soil
T/F: When clinical disease occurs, it is most severe in young, rapidly growing puppies that harbor intestinal helminths, protozoa and enteric pathogenic bacteria true
Once CPV2 enters a cell its DNA is transported to the _______. It then has to wait for the cell to enter ________ before it can begin replication. It is released from the cell through ________ nucleus, S-phase, lysis
T/F the amount of cell division occuring in the organs at the time of infection may determine how severe the CPV infection may be. True-younger puppies have more cells division in their tissues and this increase the amount & type of tissues the virus can use in replication. In older animals a narrower range of tissues are infected.
The incubation time of CPV2 is ? 7-14 days
Describe general pathogenesis of CPV2: feces->replication in lymph tissues, LN, thymus->primary viremia->GIT, Lymph tissues & BM->if animal susceptible disseminates to lung, spleen, lv, kd, heart
CPV-2 infects the germinal epithelium of ____ in the Small intesttine. This results in what? CPV-2 infects crypts and causes villus blunting
What lympohoid cells does CPV2 infect? what does it cause? CPV2 destroys precursor cells of circulateing leukocytes and lymphoid cells->causes leukopenia and lymphopenia
How long is CPV2 shed in the feces? 7-10 days
How long after infection does diarrhea develop? 5-7day
T/F viral shedding of CPV2 occurs before the onset of diarrhea/clinical symptoms? True shedding starts as early as 3 days post infection
What are the classic clinical signs for a puppy with CPV2 infection? 1. 6wks-4months of age 2. fever, vomiting, rapid-onset severe diarrhea (bloody) 3. Leukopenia, lymphopenia
How soon can a puppy die after onset of illnes with CPV? 2 days
This symptom of CPV occurs in 3 week old puppies. All pups in the litter are usually infected; they may die after a short period of dyspnea and crying. Myocarditis- not common but does occur when mom lacks maternal antibody in milk
T/F gross lesions are diagnostic for Parvo? False-need to have microcopic analsysis of crypts and villi
What gross lesions would you expect to see for Parvo? intestinal wall of duodenum and jejunum is segmentally thickened with dark/bloody fluid in lumen
what microscopic lesions would be present for CPV2? necorosis of villi/crypts, peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen
what gross lesion will appear with Myocarditis? pale streaks in heart muscle
How do you diagnose CPV2? clinical signs are suggestive, follow up with fecal ELISA, confirm with PCR on feces
T/F dogs that have been given the ML Vaccine for CPV2 will shed the virus in their feces for 5-12 days post vacc True
T/f if a dog survives for 3-4 days post infection with CPV2 it will usually make a good recovery and have rapid, long-term immunity? True!
T/F both IgG and IgA protect the recovered puppy from future bouts of Parvo False. IgA is not long term so infection can occur, but the IgG prevents systemic spread of the dz
How can you get rid of any CPV2 that has contaminated your house or vet clinic? Use bleach (1:30 diln) and leave it on the surface for at least 10 minutes.
What is the MC reason that vaccination of puppies with a CPV vaccine doesn't work? Maternal antibody interference
T/F CPV vaccines prevent agains all strains of CPV? true
T/F CPV are zoonotic? False
Where do coronaviruses replicate? cytoplasm
primary host for canine coronaviral enteritis? dogs
T/F CCV is highly contagious and spreads quickly through groups of dogs True
T/F CCV is a common cause of enteritis and diarrhea in dogs False-uncommon, more common for puppies in kennels
What cells do the CCV attack? mature absorptive enterocytes lining the tips and sides of the intestinal villi.
What are the characteristic clinical signs of a CCV infection? sudden onset of diarrhea in young puppy, Anorexia and lethargy common,
How long will it take a CCV puppy to recover? Mortality? 8-10 day recovery, mortality low unless there is a coinfection as with E. coli
CCV lesions: villous atrophy, crypt epithelial hyperplasia
How do you Dx CCV? RT-PCR detects viral RNA
Prevention/ Control of CCV? inactivated ML available but not recomended for most dogs b/c infection is so mild
Host for Canine herpes virus? domestic and wild dogs
What type of virus is CHV? alpha-herpes virus that intranuclear inclusion bodies
T/F herpes viruses are stable in the environment and are hard to kill with common disinfectants? False-they are unstable and easily killed by heat and disinfectants
Are alpha herpes viruses host specific? Yes
How is canine herpes virus maintained in nature? by latent infection in the sensory ganglia
How is Canine herpes virus transmitted (2)? 1. direct contact with respiratory or genital tract secretions of infected dogs 2. transplacental transmission from bitch, during contact iwth gential lesions as pass out birth canal
Puppies less than ___ weeks of age are most susceptible to Herpres. Why? 2 wks (but up to 6wks) are susceptible to hepres b/c they can't regulate their body temp well, and core temperature is lower in the range where herpes viruses like to replicate
What are the clinical signs of CaHV-1 in puppies? Following incubation period of 3-8 days, signs last 1 - 2 days and include abdominal pain, anorexia, and dyspnea
What are the clinical signs of CaHV-1 in adult dogs? causes genital disease (vaginal or preputial exudate and focal nodular lesions on the vaginal, penile and prepucial epithelium). Virus may also cause respiratory disease similar to kennel cough
Where does the CaHV inital replication occur nasal mucosa, pharynx and tonsils. viremia and generalized infection of many organs may follow
What is the optimal temperature for CaHV? 33F
What would you expect to see in gross pathology of a puppy with CaHV? multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage in multiple organs including: kidney, liver, lung, adrenal, heart, intestine, spleen.
How do you diagnosise CaHV? 1. gross and microscopic lesions 2. PCR 3. cell culture
T/F a vaccine for CaHV is now available? False
T/F C-section will decrease the chance of puppies getting CaHV True
T/F Rotavirus is rarely the cause of diarrhea in puppies less than 12 weeks of age? True
Is there a vaccine for rotavirus? No
Created by: rccola19