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Mass Media Test 1

Mass Media Test 1 vocab

QuestionAnswer
Movable Metal Type Innovative metal alphabet that made the printing press an agent for mass communication
Johannes Gutenberg Invented movable metal type in 1440
Vellum A treated animal skin used in early printing
Industrial Revolution Use of machinery, notably steam-powered, that facilitated mass production beginning in 1700-1800
Pulp Fiction Derisive term for cheap novels
Richard Hoe Perfected rotary press 1840
Omar Mergenthaler Invented Linotype typesetting machine 1886
Linotype Complex machine with typewriter-like keyboard to set type into line from molten lead
Frederick Ives Invented halftone in 1876
Halftone Reproduction of an image in which the various tones of gray or color produced by various sized dots of ink
Steve Horgan Adapted halftone technology for high speed newspaper presses
National Geographic Pioneer magazine in using visuals
Henry Luce Magazine innovator whose Life exploited photographs for their visual impact
Joseph Niepce Preserved a visual image on light-sensitive material
Matthew Brady Created photographic record of U.S. Civil War
Laurens Hammond First 3D movie Radio-Man 1922
Stereoscopy Early 3D technology that flashed two slightly offset images simultaneously one for the right eye, one for the left
Persistence of Vision Fast changing still photos create the illusion of movements
William Dickson Developed first movie camera
George Eastman Developed celluloid film
Lumiere Brothers Opened first motion picture exhibition hall
Phonograph First sound recording and playback machine
Thomas Edison Inventor of Phonograph
Emile Berliner Inventor of process for mass production of record music
Joseph Maxfield Introduced electrical sound recording 1920
Telegraph Electricity enabled long distance communication
Samuel Morse Inventor of telegraph
Heinrich Hertz Demonstrated existence of radio waves 1887
Guglielmo Marconi Transmitted 1st wireless message 1895
Philo Farnsworth Inventor of television
Image Dissector 1st device in early television technology
Geosynchronous Orbit A satellite's period of rotation that coincides perfectly with Earth's rotation
Arthur C. Clarke Devised the concept of satellites in geosynchronous orbits for communication
Telstar 1st communication satellite
Uplink A group station that beams a signal to an orbiting communication satellite
Downlink A ground station tat receives a re-layed signal from a communication satellite
Landline Conventional telecommunications connected by cable laid across land
Ed Parsons Built 1st community antenna television system
Cable Television Television transmission system using cable rather than an over air broadcast signal
Internet High capacity global telephone network that links computers
Digital Technology through which media messages are coded into 1s and 0s for delivery transmission and then decoded into their original appearance
Media Convergence Melding of print, electronic, and photographic media into digitized form
Tim Berners-Lee Created hypertext markup language and world wide web
App Small software program, usually for mobile devices, for a narrowly defined use
Cloud Computing Provides access to databases through seamless on-demand downloading rather than storing on personal computer
Harold Lasswell Devised the narrative communication model
Channel Medium through which a message is sent to a mass audience
Effect The consequence of a message
Amplification Giving a message a larger audience
Gatekeepers Media people who influence messages en route
Regulators Non-media people who influence messages
Noise Impediment to communication before a message reaches a receiver, multiple forms: semantic, channel, environmental
Filter Receiver factor that impedes communication in various types, informational, psychological, physical
Wikipedia User created and edited encyclopedia
Benjamin Day Published the New York Sun
Penny Papers Affordable newspapers introduced in 1833 created unprecedented mass audience
Business Model A design operating a business, identifying revenue sources, customer base, products, financing
Publisher Magazine or newspaper proprietor
News-Editoral Newspaper staff component that produces news, amusement and opinion content
Editor Manager who is responsible for news media content
Benjamin Franklin created 1st newspaper chain
Chain Newspaper Owned by a company that owns other newspapers elsewhere
William Randolph Hearst Publisher of New York Journal, other major dailies in the yellow period
Market Penetration Sales per capita
Paywall Block access to a website content unless a payment is made
William Tweed Corrupt politician exposed by the New York Times
George Jones Jew York Times reporter who pursued Tammany Hall Scandall
Sullivan Decision Landmark libel case in which New York Times argued for unfettered reporting of public officials
Pentagon Papers Secret government generated vietnam war military documents revealed by New York Times
Barney Kilgore Revamped concept of Wall Street Journal 1940
Rupert Murdoch Founder of global media conglomerate News Corporation
Daniel Defoe His 1704 weekly review established magazines as forum for ideas
Highbrow Slicks Magazines whose content has intellectual appeal
Literati Well-educated people interested in literature and cerebral issues
Muckraking 1990s term for investigating reporting
Ida Tarbell Exposed standard oil monopolistic practices in 1902 magazine series
Lincoln Steffens Exposed municipal corruption
Upton Sinclair Exposed bad meat-packing practices
Personality Profile In depth, balanced biographical article
Hugh Hefner Playboy editor who created Q-A
Henry Luce Magazine empire included Time, Life, Sports Illustrated, Fortune
Demassification Process of media narrowing focus to audience niches
Business to Influentials (B to I) Business model with advertising aimed at creating sales indirectly by reaching influential audiences
Michael Kinsley Founding editor of Slate magazine as well as editor for the New Reputlic and numerous other publications
Slate Online magazine of news, politics, and culture
Jeff Bezos Founder of Amazon.com
Reference Books Compliations, including encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases
Textbooks Curriculum- related titles for learning and understanding
Trade Books General interest titles including fiction and non-fiction
e-books digital files of books, content that are stored, searched, sampled, downloaded and paid for online for use on computer, dedicated readers or cell phone
e-reader Portable electronic device for on-screen reading of books
Harry Potter effect Impact of a single best selling book
Aliterate A nonreader who can read but doesn't
CATV Community Antenna Television
CPM Cost per thousand
Capitalism An economic system with private owners operating trade and industry for profit
Venture Capitalists Investors who take substantial risk, typically in a new or expanding business
Dot-Com Bubble Highly speculative investments in internet companies 1995-2000
Dot-Com Bust Sudden collapse of value in internet companies 2005
Frank Gannett Founder of Gannett media corporation
Conglomeration Process of companies being brought into common ownership but remaining distinct entities
Mary Baker Eddy Founded in christian science monitor in 1908
Christian Science Monitor National daily newspaper sponsored by the christian science church
Community Foundation Nonporfit entity to promote good in a community; generally supported by donations
Cooperative An organization owned and run jointly by members that share profits or benefits
Associated Press Worlds largest news gathering organization; a nonprofit and a cooperative owned by member newspapers
Death Tax A tax on inheritances
1789 Postal Act Provided government discounts for mailing newspapers
Scarcity Model Too few resources for demand
1927 Federal Radio Act Created a government agency to license radio stations
Marketplace Model Supply and demand determines the enterprises that remain in business
Newspaper Preservation Act 1970 federal law for exception from antitrust laws for local newspapers that combine all by news editorial operations
Joint Operating Agreements (JOA's) Combination under federal law of production, distribution, advertising and business operations of competing newspapers
Legals Paid advertising required by law, usually verbatim government documents
Philanthropy Generous donation for good causes
Underwriting On-air acknowledgements of non-commercial broadcast sponsors
Micropayment A small sum generally billed with related charges, often on a credit card
Auxiliary Enterprise A business sideline that generates revenue
Oligopoly An industry in which a few companies dominate production, distribution
Monopoly Single company dominates production, distribution in any industry, either nationally or locally
Trade Groups Organization created by related endeavors sometimes competitors to pursue mutual goals
Andy Grove Theorist on gentrification in industries
Astroturfing Political activism designated to appear as "grassroots" but actually part of an organized campaign
War of the Worlds Novel that inspired a radio drama that became the test bed of the media's ability to instill panic
Orson Welles His radio drama cast doubt on powerful effects theory
Powerful Effects Theory Theory that media have immediate, direct influence
Walter Lippmann His Public Opinion assumed powerful media effects in 1920s
Harold Lasswell His mass communication model assumed powerful effects
Bullet Model Another name for the overrated powerful effects theory
Third-Person Effect One person overestimating the effect of media messages on the other people
W.P. Davison Scholar who devised third-person effect theory
Paul Lazarsfeld Found voters are the most influenced by other people than by mass media
Minimalist Effect Theory Theory that media effects are mostly indirect
Two-Step Flow Media affects individuals through opinion leaders
Multistep Flow Media affects individuals through complex interpersonal connections
Status Conferral Media attention enhances attention given to people, subjects, issues
Agenda-Setting Media tell people what to think about, not what to think
Maxwell McCombs and Don Shaw Articulated agenda-setting theory
Narcoticizing Dysfunctional People deceive themselves into believing they're involved when actually they're only informed
Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann Leading cumulative effects theorist
Cumulative Effects Theory Theory that media influence is gradual over time
Spiral of Silence Vocal majority intimidates others into silence
Socialization Learning to fit into society
Prosocial Socialization perpetuates positive values
Joshua Meyrowiz Noted that media have reduced generational and gender barriers
Role Modeling Basis for imitative behavior
Stereotyping Using broad strokes to facilitate storytelling
Historical Transmission Communication of cultural values to later generations
Contemporary Transmission Communication of cultural values to different cultures
Diffusion of Innovations Process through which news, ideas, values and information spread
Cultural Imperialism One culture's dominance over another
Sigmund Freud Austrian psychiatrist who theorized that the human mind is unconscious susceptible to suggestion
Ernest Dichter Pioneered motivational research
Motivational Research Seeks subconscious appeals that can be used in advertising
Jim Vicary Made dubious subliminal advertising claims
Subliminal Message Cannot be consciously perceived
Subception Receiving subconscious messages that trigger behavior
Observational Learning Theory that people learn behaior by seeing it in real life, in depictions
Cathartic Effect People release violent inclinations by seeing them portrayed
Aristotle Defended portrayals of violence
Seymour Freshbach Found evidence for media violence as a release
Aggressive Stimulation Theory that people are inspired to violence by media depictions
Bobo Doll Studies Kids seemed more violent after seeing violence in movies
Albert Bandura Found that media violence stimulated aggression in children
Catalytic Theory Media violence is among factors that sometimes contribute to real-life violence
Wilbur Schramm Concluded that television has minimal effect on children
George Gerbner Speculated that democracy is endangered by media violence
Desensitizing Theory Tolerance of real-life violence grows because of media-depicted violences
Violence Assessment Monitoring Project Conducted contextual nonviolence studies and found less serious media depictions than earlier thought
William McQuire Found most media violence research flawed
Mass Media Strictly speaking, ---- ---- are the vehicles through which messages are disseminated to mass audiences. The term is also used for industries built on --- ----
Media Multitasking Simultaneous exposure to messages from different media
Mass Communication Technology-enabled process by which messages are sent to large, faraway audiences
Symbiosis Mutually advantageous relationship
Interpersonal Communication Between two individuals, although sometimes a small group, usually face to face
Group Communication An audience of more than one, all within earshot
Feedback Response to a message
Industrial Communication Synonyms for mass communication that points up industrial-scale technology that underlies the mass communication process
Social Media Internet-based communication platforms for the interactive exchange of user-generated content
Linguistic Literacy Competencies with a written and spoken language
Visual Literacy A competency at deciphering meaning from images
John Debes Introduced term visual literacy in 1969
Scott McCloud Comic book author who refined understandings about media literacy
Film Literacy Competences to assess messages in motion media, such as movies, television and video
Media Literacy Competences that enable people to analyze and evaluate media messages and also to create effective messages for mediated delivery
Marketplace of Ideas The concept that a robust exchange of ideas, with none barred, yields better consensus
Demassification Media's focus on narrower audience segments
Sub-Mass Audience A section of the largest mass audience, with niche interests
Narrowcasting Seeking niche audiences, as opposed to broadcasting's traditional audience-building concept
Created by: Meg0301