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Cardiovascular System Chapter 13

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Arteries carry   oxygenated (O2) blood  
Arterioles refer to   small arteries  
Veins carry   deoxygenated blood-contains carbon dioxide(CO2)  
Venules refer to   small veins  
Capillaries refer to   microscopic (smallest of) arteries & veins  
Vasodilation refers to   increased diameter of arteries  
Vasoconstriction refers to   decreased diameter of arteries  
vasodilation will cause   hypotension(low blood pressure)  
vasoconstriction will cause   hypertension(high blood pressure)  
the body cavity where the heart is housed is called the   thoracic cavity  
The region directly between the sternum & vertebrae(lateral/side view) is called the   mediastinum  
The pericardium refers to the   membranous sac around the heart  
The epicardium refers to the   outer layer of the heart  
The myocardium refers to the   muscle layer of the heart  
The endocardium refers to the   inner layer of the heart  
the chambers of the heart are separated by walls called   septa(plural) septum(singular)  
Deoxygenated blood(CO2) is returned to the heart via the   venae cavae(plural) (superior & inferior)  
The superior & inferior venae cavae are the   largest veins in the body  
The venae cavae(plural) deliver the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to the   right atrium/superior right chamber of the heart  
From the Right Atrium the deoxygenated blood(CO2) moves through the   tricuspid (3 flaps) valve  
The tricuspid valve allows the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to enter the   right ventricle/inferior right chamber of the heart  
The purpose of the tricuspid valve is to prevent the blood from   regurgitating (reflux)  
the sound caused by valve regurgitation is called a   murmur (bruit)  
The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated(CO2) blood through the   pulmonary trunk  
the valve at the entrance of the pulmonary trunk is the   pulmonary semilunar valve  
From the pulmonary semilunar valve the deoxygenated blood(CO2) then enters the   right & left pulmonary arteries  
The pulmonary arteries carry the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to the   lungs-where respiration takes place(exchange of gases O2&Co2)  
The oxygenated blood(O2) returns from the lungs throught the   pulmonary veins  
The pulmonary veins deliver the oxygenated blood(O2) to the   left atrium - superior left chamber of the heart  
From the left atrium the oxygenated blood (O2) then moves through the   bicuspid valve (AKA Mitral Valve)  
The bicuspid(mitral) valve allows the O2 blood to enter the   left ventricle - inferior left chamber of the heart  
The purpose of the bicuspid(mitral) valve is to prevent the blood from   regurgitating (reflux)  
The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated (O2) blood through the   aortic semilunar valve  
the aortic semilunar valve allows the oxygenated(O2) blood to enter the   Ascending aorta, then to the Aortic arch, then to the Descending Thoracic Aorta, to the Abdominal Aorta.  
The aorta branches off into arteries, arterioles, and capillaries that will   distribute the oxygen(O2) to the tissues of the body  
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the bicuspid(Mitral) and tricuspid valves preventing prolapse(hyperextend) are called   chordae tendineae  
The Carotid arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   brain  
The Coronary arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   myocardium  
The subclavian arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   arms & superior thorax(upper chest)  
The mesenteric(intestine) arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   intestines  
the Phrenic arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   diaphragm -main muscle of ventilation(breathing)  
The abdominal aorta bifurcates(splits into a Y) into the   iliac arteries  
The Iliac(pelvis/thigh area)arteries deliver oxygenated(O2) blood to the   pelvis & thighs  
The femoral arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the   legs  
Other capillaries, venules, and veins will return the deoxygenated(CO2) blood to the   venae cavae and the circuit is complete  
The Jugulars drain deoxygenated blood from the   head  
The saphenous veins drain deoxygenated blood from the   legs  
The saphenous veins are commonly used for   Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts(CABG)  
Another vessel used for CABG(Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts) is the   Mammary (breast) artery  
Heart-lung machine   a machine that respirates the blood when the heart is stopped for surgical procedures.  
C-reactive protein(CRP)   inflammatory indicator & powerful risk factor for heart disease  
CPK(CK) & LDH (LD)   enzymes(chemicals) in the blood that indicate muscle damage  
CPK-MB("isoennzymes" or "isos")   very specific enzymes in the blood that indicate cardiac damage  
The azygos vein drains deoxygenated blood from the   thorax  
The median cubital(antecubital) veins are commonly used to perform   phlebotomy(veinipuncture)  
Blood is necessary to   1)transport nutrients& water from the digestive tract to all cells of the body 2)transport waste products from the body's cells to the lungs,sweat glands &kidneys for excretion. 3)transport hormones from endocrine glands to target cells&organs in the body  
Blood is necessary to continued   4)transport enzymes 2 bodycells in order to regulate chemical processes & reactions.5)Dissipates excess body heat through dilated blood vessels in skin. 6)transport leukocytes & antibodies to defend body against pathogens.  
Blood is necessary to continued 2   7)helps regulate body pH by transporting buffers&amino acids  
The nutrients that are in blood include   a.Vitamins & minerals used for Chemical process & reactions b.Carbohydrates used for Energy c.Proteins used for growth & repair d.Fats used for vitamin absorption & cellular wall creation  
Normal blood pH is   7.35-7.45  
Blood pH below 7.35 is considered (low breathing, to much CO2)   acidotic(acidosis)  
Blood pH above 7.45 is considered (fast breathing, to little CO2)   alkalitic(alkaline,alkalosis or basic  
An average woman has approximately______   5 liters of blood  
An average man has approximately______   6 liters of blood  
Whole Blood(WB) is made up of:   1)Erythrocytes AKA red blood cells(RBCs) 2)Leukocytes AKA white blood cells(WBCs) 3)Thrombocytes AKA clot cells or platelets 4)Plasma  
Erythrocytes are responsible for   respiration - exchange of gases/Carbon dioxide(CO2)& Oxygen(O2)  
Erythrocytes appear as biconcave disks with edges that are   thicker than the center of the cell  
Erythrocytes do not have nuclei so they do not have the ability to   divide (replicate)  
Erythropoiesis means   the formation of erythrocytes and occurs in the red bone marrow AKA myeloid tissue  
A normal erythrocyte count is   4-6 million/mm3  
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the   kidneys & is necessary for erythrocyte development(formation-poietin or poiesis)  
Erythrocytes live for approximately   120 days(4 month)  
Erythrocytes die at a rate of   2,000,000/second  
Hemolysis means   the break up or destruction of blood(RBCs)  
Bilirubin is   dead, broken up erythrocytes  
Hyperbilirubinemia means   a blood condition of excessive bilirubin  
hyperbilirubinemia causes   jaundice or icterus  
Jaundice or icterus is a   yellowish, orange discoloration to the skin or sclerae  
Hyperbilirubinemia can be caused by   liver, gall bladder, or pancreatic dysfunction  
The blood protein found inside RBCs that is necessary for RBCs to carry O2 & CO2 is called   hemoglobin  
A normal hemoglobin range is   12-17 g/dl  
The element necessary for healthy hemoglobin is called   iron (Fe)  
food rich in iron(Fe) include   red meat & dark green leafy vegetables  
Hematocrit ("crit") is the measure of the   packed cell volume(PCV) which is the percentage of blood that is made up of (attributed) erythocytes(RBCs)  
H&H stands for   hemoglobin(Hgb) & hematocrit (Hct or"crit")  
MCH stands for   Mean (way of measuring) Cell Hemoglobin  
MCHC stands for   Mean (way of measuring) Cell Homoglobin Concentration  
Anemia refers to   erythrocytopenia (deficiency of erythrocytes(RBCs) and/or a deficiency of hemoglobin  
Leukocytes are part of your   immune response against foreign proteins (Antigen)  
A normal leukocyte count is   5,000-11,000 mm3  
Leukocytosis is an   elevated leukocyte count (WBCs)  
Infection can cause a leukocytosis of   20,000 mm3  
Leukopoiesis means   the formation of leukocytes (WBCs) and occurs in the red bone marrow  
Leukocytes are   a.Monocytes(phagocytes-eating cell), b.Neutrophils(phagocytes), c.Basophils(release histamine&heparin, d.Eosinophils(lessen allergic reactions & increase in # in the event of a parasitical worm infestation(helminths). e.Leukocytes help produce antibodies  
Phagocytes consume(eat)   antigens (Monocytes & Neutrophils)  
Histamine triggers the   inflammatory response  
Heparin prevents   (anticoagulant) clotting & promotes blood flow  
antibodies are necessary to defeat   viral infection  
Leukocytopenia means   a deficiency of white cells  
Leukemia refers to a   blood condition of extreme(to many WBCs) leukocytosis of immature leukocytes(WBCs)  
Thrombocytes(platelets/clot cells) are needed for proper   coagulation (turn liquid into a solid)  
a normal thrombocyte count is   150,000-300,000 mm3  
Thrombocytes(platelets/clot cells) ar produced at a rate of   200,000,000,000/day($200 billion)  
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the   red bone marrow  
Hemophilia is a genetic coagulopathy(disease condition of coagulation) caused by a deficience of a   clotting factor  
thrombus(singular) (thrombi-plural) are   clots  
embolus(singular) (emboli-plural) are   a floating clot(s)  
thrombolysis or thrombolytic means   the break up or destruction of clots  
anticoagulant means   against coagulation(clotting)  
thrombocytopenia means   a deficiency of platelets(clot cells)  
thrombocytosis means   an abnormal condition of excessive platelets  
a bleeding time is a or (INR - International Normalization Ratio)   test to determine a person's ability to coagulate  
Coagulation panel(profile) consits of   INR(international normalization ratio), prothrombin(PT), platelet count, and bleeding time  
DIC stands for   Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (happens when you get many blood transfusions)  
DIC causes the coagulation process to   collaspe, followed by hypovolemic shock (excanguination/bleed to death) and death  
Plasma is the   liquid portion of the blood---what everything floats in (what is left when you remove RBCs, WBCs, & thrombocytes)  
Plasma is made up of   water, plasma proteins, salts, gases, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes, homones, vitamins, & minerals  
Plasma makes up approximately   55% of the blood volume  
The cells and other elements make up   45% of the blood volume  
A plasma protein necessary for proper fluid balance is   albumin  
Two plasma proteins that play a vital role in coagulation are   fibrinogen & prothrombin(PT)  
Proper prothrombin production requires adequate amounts of   vitamin K -- foods rich in this include: Green leafy vegetables  
Serum is   plasma without fibrinogen & prothrombin(PT)  
Plasmapheresis refers to the   separation(-pheresis) of the plasma from the blood cells  
FFP stands for   Fresh Frozen plasma----can be stored indefinitely  
Cryoprecipitates refers to   FFP (fresh frozen plasma) with clotting factors  
A bone marrow biopsy(Bx) is a   test commonly used to determine cancers of the blood  
Myelogenic means   pertaining to created by the bone marrow  
Hematocytopenia means   a deficiency of blood cells  
Hematoma refers to a   mass of blood  
Dysrasia refers to   any blood abnormality  
Morphology means   the study of shapes  
Hypercholesterolemia is a   blood condition of excessive cholesterol  
Hematologist is a   specialist in the study of blood  
Hemostasis(hemostatic) means   the stoppage or controlling of bleeding  
A complete blood count(CBC) is a count of the numbers of   1.Erythrocytes(RBCs) 2.Leukocytes (WBCs) 3.Thrombocytes (platelets/clot cells) 4.Hemoglobin(Hgb) & hematocrit(Het) 5.ESR or "sed rate"(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)  
An elevated ESR(Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) indicates   inflammation (can increase risk of heart disease)  
A differential ("diff") is an   individual count of the five different types of Leukocytes (the MONKEY never eat little bananas)  
The Four blood types are   A, B, AB, and O  
Each blood type has a + or - called an   Rh factor  
The Universal donor is type   O-  
The Universal recipient is type   AB+  
A Negative Rh blood type CAN BE given to a   positive Rh blood type  
A Positive Rh CANNOT BE given to a   negative Rh blood type  
Blood is transfused in   units(U)  
Donated blood has a refrigerated shelf life of   42 days  
Type & crossmatch(screen) (T+CM) means   determining blood type & compatibiity with other blood types  
PRBCs stands for   Packed Red Blood Cells-(PRBCs)  
A lipid profile(panel) includes:   1.Total Cholesterol should be <200 mg/dL 2.HDL(High Density Lipoproteins--good cholesterol) should be >40 mg/dL 3.Triglycerides shold be <150 mg/dL 4.LDL(Low Density Lipoproteins) should be <130 mg/dL  


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