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Fund of Body

Cardiovascular System Chapter 13

Arteries carry oxygenated (O2) blood
Arterioles refer to small arteries
Veins carry deoxygenated blood-contains carbon dioxide(CO2)
Venules refer to small veins
Capillaries refer to microscopic (smallest of) arteries & veins
Vasodilation refers to increased diameter of arteries
Vasoconstriction refers to decreased diameter of arteries
vasodilation will cause hypotension(low blood pressure)
vasoconstriction will cause hypertension(high blood pressure)
the body cavity where the heart is housed is called the thoracic cavity
The region directly between the sternum & vertebrae(lateral/side view) is called the mediastinum
The pericardium refers to the membranous sac around the heart
The epicardium refers to the outer layer of the heart
The myocardium refers to the muscle layer of the heart
The endocardium refers to the inner layer of the heart
the chambers of the heart are separated by walls called septa(plural) septum(singular)
Deoxygenated blood(CO2) is returned to the heart via the venae cavae(plural) (superior & inferior)
The superior & inferior venae cavae are the largest veins in the body
The venae cavae(plural) deliver the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to the right atrium/superior right chamber of the heart
From the Right Atrium the deoxygenated blood(CO2) moves through the tricuspid (3 flaps) valve
The tricuspid valve allows the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to enter the right ventricle/inferior right chamber of the heart
The purpose of the tricuspid valve is to prevent the blood from regurgitating (reflux)
the sound caused by valve regurgitation is called a murmur (bruit)
The right ventricle pumps the deoxygenated(CO2) blood through the pulmonary trunk
the valve at the entrance of the pulmonary trunk is the pulmonary semilunar valve
From the pulmonary semilunar valve the deoxygenated blood(CO2) then enters the right & left pulmonary arteries
The pulmonary arteries carry the deoxygenated blood(CO2) to the lungs-where respiration takes place(exchange of gases O2&Co2)
The oxygenated blood(O2) returns from the lungs throught the pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins deliver the oxygenated blood(O2) to the left atrium - superior left chamber of the heart
From the left atrium the oxygenated blood (O2) then moves through the bicuspid valve (AKA Mitral Valve)
The bicuspid(mitral) valve allows the O2 blood to enter the left ventricle - inferior left chamber of the heart
The purpose of the bicuspid(mitral) valve is to prevent the blood from regurgitating (reflux)
The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated (O2) blood through the aortic semilunar valve
the aortic semilunar valve allows the oxygenated(O2) blood to enter the Ascending aorta, then to the Aortic arch, then to the Descending Thoracic Aorta, to the Abdominal Aorta.
The aorta branches off into arteries, arterioles, and capillaries that will distribute the oxygen(O2) to the tissues of the body
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the bicuspid(Mitral) and tricuspid valves preventing prolapse(hyperextend) are called chordae tendineae
The Carotid arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the brain
The Coronary arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium
The subclavian arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the arms & superior thorax(upper chest)
The mesenteric(intestine) arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the intestines
the Phrenic arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the diaphragm -main muscle of ventilation(breathing)
The abdominal aorta bifurcates(splits into a Y) into the iliac arteries
The Iliac(pelvis/thigh area)arteries deliver oxygenated(O2) blood to the pelvis & thighs
The femoral arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the legs
Other capillaries, venules, and veins will return the deoxygenated(CO2) blood to the venae cavae and the circuit is complete
The Jugulars drain deoxygenated blood from the head
The saphenous veins drain deoxygenated blood from the legs
The saphenous veins are commonly used for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts(CABG)
Another vessel used for CABG(Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts) is the Mammary (breast) artery
Heart-lung machine a machine that respirates the blood when the heart is stopped for surgical procedures.
C-reactive protein(CRP) inflammatory indicator & powerful risk factor for heart disease
CPK(CK) & LDH (LD) enzymes(chemicals) in the blood that indicate muscle damage
CPK-MB("isoennzymes" or "isos") very specific enzymes in the blood that indicate cardiac damage
The azygos vein drains deoxygenated blood from the thorax
The median cubital(antecubital) veins are commonly used to perform phlebotomy(veinipuncture)
Blood is necessary to 1)transport nutrients& water from the digestive tract to all cells of the body 2)transport waste products from the body's cells to the lungs,sweat glands &kidneys for excretion. 3)transport hormones from endocrine glands to target cells&organs in the body
Blood is necessary to continued 4)transport enzymes 2 bodycells in order to regulate chemical processes & reactions.5)Dissipates excess body heat through dilated blood vessels in skin. 6)transport leukocytes & antibodies to defend body against pathogens.
Blood is necessary to continued 2 7)helps regulate body pH by transporting buffers&amino acids
The nutrients that are in blood include a.Vitamins & minerals used for Chemical process & reactions b.Carbohydrates used for Energy c.Proteins used for growth & repair d.Fats used for vitamin absorption & cellular wall creation
Normal blood pH is 7.35-7.45
Blood pH below 7.35 is considered (low breathing, to much CO2) acidotic(acidosis)
Blood pH above 7.45 is considered (fast breathing, to little CO2) alkalitic(alkaline,alkalosis or basic
An average woman has approximately______ 5 liters of blood
An average man has approximately______ 6 liters of blood
Whole Blood(WB) is made up of: 1)Erythrocytes AKA red blood cells(RBCs) 2)Leukocytes AKA white blood cells(WBCs) 3)Thrombocytes AKA clot cells or platelets 4)Plasma
Erythrocytes are responsible for respiration - exchange of gases/Carbon dioxide(CO2)& Oxygen(O2)
Erythrocytes appear as biconcave disks with edges that are thicker than the center of the cell
Erythrocytes do not have nuclei so they do not have the ability to divide (replicate)
Erythropoiesis means the formation of erythrocytes and occurs in the red bone marrow AKA myeloid tissue
A normal erythrocyte count is 4-6 million/mm3
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the kidneys & is necessary for erythrocyte development(formation-poietin or poiesis)
Erythrocytes live for approximately 120 days(4 month)
Erythrocytes die at a rate of 2,000,000/second
Hemolysis means the break up or destruction of blood(RBCs)
Bilirubin is dead, broken up erythrocytes
Hyperbilirubinemia means a blood condition of excessive bilirubin
hyperbilirubinemia causes jaundice or icterus
Jaundice or icterus is a yellowish, orange discoloration to the skin or sclerae
Hyperbilirubinemia can be caused by liver, gall bladder, or pancreatic dysfunction
The blood protein found inside RBCs that is necessary for RBCs to carry O2 & CO2 is called hemoglobin
A normal hemoglobin range is 12-17 g/dl
The element necessary for healthy hemoglobin is called iron (Fe)
food rich in iron(Fe) include red meat & dark green leafy vegetables
Hematocrit ("crit") is the measure of the packed cell volume(PCV) which is the percentage of blood that is made up of (attributed) erythocytes(RBCs)
H&H stands for hemoglobin(Hgb) & hematocrit (Hct or"crit")
MCH stands for Mean (way of measuring) Cell Hemoglobin
MCHC stands for Mean (way of measuring) Cell Homoglobin Concentration
Anemia refers to erythrocytopenia (deficiency of erythrocytes(RBCs) and/or a deficiency of hemoglobin
Leukocytes are part of your immune response against foreign proteins (Antigen)
A normal leukocyte count is 5,000-11,000 mm3
Leukocytosis is an elevated leukocyte count (WBCs)
Infection can cause a leukocytosis of 20,000 mm3
Leukopoiesis means the formation of leukocytes (WBCs) and occurs in the red bone marrow
Leukocytes are a.Monocytes(phagocytes-eating cell), b.Neutrophils(phagocytes), c.Basophils(release histamine&heparin, d.Eosinophils(lessen allergic reactions & increase in # in the event of a parasitical worm infestation(helminths). e.Leukocytes help produce antibodies
Phagocytes consume(eat) antigens (Monocytes & Neutrophils)
Histamine triggers the inflammatory response
Heparin prevents (anticoagulant) clotting & promotes blood flow
antibodies are necessary to defeat viral infection
Leukocytopenia means a deficiency of white cells
Leukemia refers to a blood condition of extreme(to many WBCs) leukocytosis of immature leukocytes(WBCs)
Thrombocytes(platelets/clot cells) are needed for proper coagulation (turn liquid into a solid)
a normal thrombocyte count is 150,000-300,000 mm3
Thrombocytes(platelets/clot cells) ar produced at a rate of 200,000,000,000/day($200 billion)
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the red bone marrow
Hemophilia is a genetic coagulopathy(disease condition of coagulation) caused by a deficience of a clotting factor
thrombus(singular) (thrombi-plural) are clots
embolus(singular) (emboli-plural) are a floating clot(s)
thrombolysis or thrombolytic means the break up or destruction of clots
anticoagulant means against coagulation(clotting)
thrombocytopenia means a deficiency of platelets(clot cells)
thrombocytosis means an abnormal condition of excessive platelets
a bleeding time is a or (INR - International Normalization Ratio) test to determine a person's ability to coagulate
Coagulation panel(profile) consits of INR(international normalization ratio), prothrombin(PT), platelet count, and bleeding time
DIC stands for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (happens when you get many blood transfusions)
DIC causes the coagulation process to collaspe, followed by hypovolemic shock (excanguination/bleed to death) and death
Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood---what everything floats in (what is left when you remove RBCs, WBCs, & thrombocytes)
Plasma is made up of water, plasma proteins, salts, gases, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes, homones, vitamins, & minerals
Plasma makes up approximately 55% of the blood volume
The cells and other elements make up 45% of the blood volume
A plasma protein necessary for proper fluid balance is albumin
Two plasma proteins that play a vital role in coagulation are fibrinogen & prothrombin(PT)
Proper prothrombin production requires adequate amounts of vitamin K -- foods rich in this include: Green leafy vegetables
Serum is plasma without fibrinogen & prothrombin(PT)
Plasmapheresis refers to the separation(-pheresis) of the plasma from the blood cells
FFP stands for Fresh Frozen plasma----can be stored indefinitely
Cryoprecipitates refers to FFP (fresh frozen plasma) with clotting factors
A bone marrow biopsy(Bx) is a test commonly used to determine cancers of the blood
Myelogenic means pertaining to created by the bone marrow
Hematocytopenia means a deficiency of blood cells
Hematoma refers to a mass of blood
Dysrasia refers to any blood abnormality
Morphology means the study of shapes
Hypercholesterolemia is a blood condition of excessive cholesterol
Hematologist is a specialist in the study of blood
Hemostasis(hemostatic) means the stoppage or controlling of bleeding
A complete blood count(CBC) is a count of the numbers of 1.Erythrocytes(RBCs) 2.Leukocytes (WBCs) 3.Thrombocytes (platelets/clot cells) 4.Hemoglobin(Hgb) & hematocrit(Het) 5.ESR or "sed rate"(erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
An elevated ESR(Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) indicates inflammation (can increase risk of heart disease)
A differential ("diff") is an individual count of the five different types of Leukocytes (the MONKEY never eat little bananas)
The Four blood types are A, B, AB, and O
Each blood type has a + or - called an Rh factor
The Universal donor is type O-
The Universal recipient is type AB+
A Negative Rh blood type CAN BE given to a positive Rh blood type
A Positive Rh CANNOT BE given to a negative Rh blood type
Blood is transfused in units(U)
Donated blood has a refrigerated shelf life of 42 days
Type & crossmatch(screen) (T+CM) means determining blood type & compatibiity with other blood types
PRBCs stands for Packed Red Blood Cells-(PRBCs)
A lipid profile(panel) includes: 1.Total Cholesterol should be <200 mg/dL 2.HDL(High Density Lipoproteins--good cholesterol) should be >40 mg/dL 3.Triglycerides shold be <150 mg/dL 4.LDL(Low Density Lipoproteins) should be <130 mg/dL
Created by: pattiluv