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Obstetrics

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amenorrhea   absence of menstrual flow  
amnion   inner of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy  
amniotic fluid   liquid produced by and contained within the fetal membranes during pregnancy. fluid protect the fetus from trauma and temperature variations  
amniotic sac   double layered sac that contains the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy  
areola   darker pigmented, circular area surrounding the nipple of each breast; areola mammae or the areola papillaris  
ballottement   technique of using the examienrs finger to tap against the uterus, through the vagina to cause the fetus to "bounce"  
Braxton Hicks contractions   irregular, ineffective contractions of the uterus that occur throughout pregnancy  
cerclage   suturing the cervix to keep it from dilating prematurely during the pregnancy "purse string"  
Chadwicks sign   bluish-violet hue of the cervix and vagina after approximately the sixth week of pregnancy  
chloasma   patches of tan or brown pigmentation associated with pregnancy, occuring mostly on the forehead, cheeks, nose "mask of pregnancy"  
chorion   outer of the two membrane layers that surround and contain the fetus and the amniotic fluid during pregnancy  
coitus   sexual intercourse; copulation  
colostrum   thin, yellowish fluid secreted by the breasts during pregnancy and the first few days after birth  
conception   union of a male sperm and a female ovum; fertilization  
corpus luteum   mass of yellowish tissue that forms with the ruptured ovarian follicle after ovulation  
eclampsia   most severe form of hypertension during pregnancy, evidenced by seizures  
edema   swelling, with water retention  
effacement   thinning of the cervix, which allows it to enlarge the diameter of its opening in preparation for childbirth  
embryo   name given to the product of conception from the second through the eighth week of pregnancy  
endometrium   inner lining of the uterus  
episiotomy   surgical procedure in which an incision is made into the womans perineum to enlarge the vaginal opening for delivery of the baby  
fetoscope   special stethoscope for hearing the fetal heartbeat through the mothers abdomen  
fetus   name given to the developing baby from approximately the eighth week after conception until birth.  
fimbriae   fringelike end of the fallopian tube  
fundus   superior aspect of the uterus  
gamete   mature sperm or ovum  
gastroesophageal reflux   return or reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus "burning sensation"  
gestation   term of pregnancy which equals approximately 280 days from the onset of the last menstrual period - gestational period  
gonads   gamete-producing gland, such as an ovary or a testie  
Goodell's sign   softening of the uterine cervix, probable sign of pregnancy  
gravida   woman who is pregnant; gravida I-first pregnancy, gravida II-second pregnancy, etc.  
Hegar's sign   softening of the lower segment of the uterus; probable sign of pregnancy  
hypertension   high blood pressure (140/90 mmHg)  
hypotension   low blood pressure; abnormal condition  
labor   time and the processes that occure during birth  
lactation   production and secretion of milk from the female breasts as nourishment for the infant - breastfeeding  
laparoscopy   visualization of the abdominal cavity with an instrument called a laparoscope through an incision into the abdominal wall  
leukorrhea   white discharge from the vagina  
lightening   settling of the fetal head into the pelvis; few weeks prior to the onset of labor  
linea nigra   darkened vertical midline appearing on the abdomen of a pregnant woman  
lithotomy position   position in which the patient lies on her back, buttocks even with the end of table, with her knees bent back toward her abdomen and the heel of each foot resting in an elevated foot rest at the end of the examination table  
lordosis   forward curvature of the spine  
multipara   woman who has given birth two or more times after 20 weeks gestation  
Nageles Rule   formula that is used to calculate the DOB- subtract 3 months from the first day of last menstrual period and add 1 year and 7 days to that date)  
neonatology   branch of medicine that specializeds in the treatment and care of the disease and disorders of the newborn through the first four weeks of life  
nullipara   woman who has never completed a pregnancy beyond 20 weeks gestation  
obstetrician   physician who specializes in the care of woman during pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks following the delivery  
obstetrics   field of medicine that deals with pregnancy, the delivery of the baby, and the first six weeks after delivery  
ovulation   release of the mature ovum from the ovary; 14 days prior to the beginning of menses  
placenta   highly vascular, disc shaped organ that forms in the pregnant uterine wall for exchange of gases and nutrients between the mother and the fetus  
preeclampsia   state during pregnancy in which the expectant mother develops high blood pressure, accompanied by proteinuria or edema, or both after 20 weeks  
pregnancy   period of intrauterine development of the fetus from conception through birth- 40 weeks  
primipara   woman who has given birth for the first time, after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks gestation  
quickening   first feeling of movemonet of the fetus felt by the expectant mother- 16 to 20 weeks gestation  
striae gravidarum   stretch marks that occur during pregnancy due to the great amount of stretching that occurs  
trimester   one of three periods of approximately three months into which pregnancy is divided; first trimester consist of 1 - 12 weeks, second trimester 13-27 weeks, third trimester 28-40 weeks  
waddling gait   manner of walking in which the feet are wide aprt and the walk resembles that of a duck  
abortion   termination of a pregnancy before the fetus has reached a viable age  
abruptio placenta   premature seperation of a normally implanted placenta from the uterine wall, after the pregnancy has passed 20 weeks gestation or during labor  
ectopic pregnancy   abnormal implantation of a fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity; tubal pregnancy  
gestational diabetes   disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy  
hyperemesis gravidarum   abnormal condition of pregnancy characterized by severe vomiting that results in maternal dehydration and weight loss  
incompetent cervix   condition in which the cervical os, dilates before the fetus reachs term, w/o labor or uterine contractions  
bloody show   vaginal discharge that is a mixture of thick mucus and pink or dark brown blood  
Braxton Hicks contractions   mild, irregular contractions that occur throughout pregnancy  
lightening   expectant mother will notice that she can breathe easier because the descent of the baby relieves some of the pressure from her diaphragm  
rupture of the amniotic sac   rupture of teh amniotic sac may occure prior to the onset of labor, may occure during labor, or may not occur without assistance - "water broke"  
sudden burst of energy   suddenly have the energy to do major housecleaning duties-things they have not had the energy to do previously  
amniocentesis   surgical puncture of the amniotic sac for the purpose of removing amniotic fluid  
cesarean section   surgical procedure in which the abdomen and uterus are incised and a baby is delivered transabdominally - cesarean delivery  
contraction stress test   stress test used to evaluate the ability of the fetus to tolerate the stress of labor and delivery (CST)- oxytocin challenge test  
pelvic ultrasound   noninvasive procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to examine the pelvis  
pelvimetry   process of measuring the female pelvis; manually or by x-ray to determine its adequacy for childbearing  
pregnancy testing   tests performed on maternal urine and/or blood to determine the presence of the hormone HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)  


   


 
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