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AP Human Geography Rubenstein Chapter 2

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Demography   The study of population.  
Arithmetic Population Density   Total population in relation to land size.  
Physiologic Population Density   Number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land.  
Where is the 1st largest population cluster located?   East Asia  
Where is the 2nd largest population cluster located?   South Asia  
Where is the 3rd largest population cluster located?   Europe  
Where is the 4th largest population cluster located?   Southeast Asia (Sumatra, Borneo, Papua New Guinea, The Philippines, Indonesia)  
Where is the 5th largest population cluster located?   North America (Boston-D.C.)  
When was the agricultural revolution?   About 10,00 years ago.  
Historically, where did people settle?   Where they could find food.  
What four places did people settle so they could farm?   Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Egypt (Nile River), Indus river valley, and China (east).  
In Europe most people live in ________ , and worked in ___________ ?   cities, coal fields  
Rate of Natural Increase   Subtract deaths from births  
Dependency Rate   The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society  
Natality   Ratio of births to the general population  
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)   Number of baby deaths during the 1st year following birth (per 1,000 live births)  
What are the leading killers of children?   Diarrhea and Malnutrition  
Child Mortality Rate (CMR)   Deaths between the ages of 1 and 5  
Kwashiorkor and Marasmus   Two diseases caused by lack of protein that kill millions  
Life Expectancy   Women out live men AIDS kills many in Africa  
The slowest growing countries lie in the economically __________ areas of the world such as __________________________.   wealthiest, USA, Canada, Europe, Russia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Uruguay, etc.  
Economic Development   Employment opportunities, nutrition, etc.  
What does ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT lead to?   Decrease in fertility and growth rates.  
Education   Better educated countries have lower fertility and growth rates  
Gender Empowerment   Status and opportunity available to women.  
What happens when women have more economic and political access?   Fertility rates drop  
Health-care   Improved health-care in developing countries have decreased Infant Mortality Rate and increased Lief Expectancy  
Cultural Tradition   Some areas encourage high fertility rates, by elevating motherhood to a high status, preventing women from doing anything else by discouraging use of birth control  
Public Policy   Government incentives to have children  
Malthus Model of Growth   Population grows exponentially, food supplies grow arithmetically  
How was Malthus proved wrong?   A. Did not account for ability to increase food production B. Assumed we have no control over reproduction C. Famine is not lack of food, but uneven distribution of it  
Neo-Malthusians   Lower mortality rates had to be balanced by reducing birth rates  
What would countries run out of besides food?   Energy  
What did Thomas Malthus write?   Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)  


   






 
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