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CHP 4 (Integumentary System)

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Functions of the Integumentary System?   - external body covering. - keeps water and other molecules in the body. - protective - insulates and cushions the deeper body organs. - protects from bumps and cuts, chemical damage, ultraviolet radiation and bacteria.  
what is on the uppermost layer of the skin, which helps prevent water loss from the body surface?   - Keratin (tough protein helps to provide a durable overcoat for the body, protects deeper cells from the hostile environment)  
What plays an important role in regulating heat loss from the body surface?   - the skin's capillary network and sweat glands (both controlled by the nervous system)  
what alerts us to bumps and presence of tissue damaging factors as well as to the feel of wind in our hair and caress?   - Cutaneous Sensory Receptors ( part of the nervous system)) - located in the skin.  
Epidermis?   - consists of " keratanized", stratified squamous epithelial cells. - composed of 5 layers of bed sheets. (stratum basale,spinosum,granulosum,lucidum and corneum) - Avascular (no blood supply)  
What type of cells are in the Epidermis?   - Keratinocytes ( keratin cells) are cells that produce keratin, fibrous protein that makes the epidermis a tough protective layer.  
Stratum Basale (deepest layer of the Epidermis) ?   - Stratum Basale, contains epidermal cells that receive nourishment through diffusion of nutrients from the dermis. - constantly dividing by mitosis. - contains live cells. - alternate name " stratum germinativum" means germinating layer.  
Stratum Spinosum (spiky) ?   - biggest layer of cells. - contain intermediate filaments, most cells are dead. - become flat and keratanized until they die and become the stratum lucidum.  
Stratum Granulosum?   - dead cells packed with pigment cells (Melanin)  
Stratum Lucidum?   - dead cells - found in hairless, thick skin (palms of hands and soles of feet) -  
Stratum Corneum?   - top most layer (dead cells) - 20-30 cell layers thick - dead cell remnants cornified or corny cells (cornu= horn) are filled with Keratin. - -  
What is dandruff? What layer is responsible for dandruff?   - the stratum corneum rubs and flakes slowly which is dandruff. - average person sheds 40lb of flakes in a lifetime. - new cells are replaced by the stratum basale in 25 to 45 days.  
How is Melanin produced?   - pigment that ranges in color. - produced by cells called melanocytes, found in the stratum basale.  
How does tanning occur?   - when skin is exposed to sunlight this causes the melanocytes to produce melanin which gives the body a tan.  
Dermis?   - acts like a bandaid for the skin (protects organs) - has loose connective tissue and fold dermal papilla act to increase surface area. - has reticular areas, varies in thickness ( thick in the palms of hands and soles of feet but thin on the eyel  
papillary layer in the dermis?   - upper dermal region has projections called dermal papillae. - contain capillary loops which furnish nutrients to the epidermis. - house pain receptors ( free nerve endings) and touch receptors ( meissners corpuscles)  
reticular layer in the dermis?   - deepest skin layer (contains blood vessels, sweat and oil glands) - contain deep pressure receptors ( Pacinian Corpuscles) - Phagocytes are found here which help prevent bacteria from entering the body. - collagen and elastic fibers are found h  
What aids in maintaining body temperature in the dermis?   - blood vessels  
Hypodermis?   - mostly fat cells. - nucleus is pushed to the side.  
Hair Root Plexus?   - network of neurons in the hair.  
Sebaceous Gland (exocrine glands) ?   - secretes oily substances, contain sebum=grease - reside in the dermis. - found all over the skin, except on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. - ducts empty into hair follicles.  
Sebum (substance made by the Sebaceous gland) ?   - sebum keeps the skin soft and lubricated. - sebum is a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells. - sebum contains chemicals that kill bacteria.  
Sweat glands?   - 2 types of sweat glands (Eccrine and Apocrine) - more than 2.5 million per person.  
Eccrine glands?   - sweat gland that releases to the skin through a duct/pore. - found all over body - produces sweat, a clear secretion containing (water, salts, vit c, traces of metabolic wastes, and lactic acid) - sweat is acidic and inhibits growth of bacteria  
Aprocrine glands?   - sweat gland, found in the axillary and genital areas. - larger than eccrine glands, ducts release into hair follicles. - secretion contains fatty acids and proteins and all substances present in eccrine glands.  
Arrector Pili Muscle?   - gives us goosebumps, controlled by ANS.  
Pacinian Corpuscle?   - covered with connective tissue, deeper in the body. - pressure receptor  
Meissners Corpuscle?   - superficial in the body - touch receptor  
Keratinocytes?   - packed with protein  
Langerhans Cells?   - dendritic cells  
Melanocytes?   - cells that make melanin  
Merkel?   - sensory and neuron cells  


   






 
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