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Anatomical Terms/Bone

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Anatomical Terms/Bone
appendicular skeleton   bones of shoulder, pelvis, & upper/lower extremities  
axial skeleton   bones of skull, vertebral column, chest and hyoid bone (u-shaped bone lying at base of tongue)  
bone   specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells) forming the skeleton  
compact bone   type of bone tissue; tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending  
spongy (cancellous) bone   type of bone tissue; mesh-like bone tissue containing morrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run  
long bones   bone classification; bones of arms and legs  
short bones   bone classification; bones of wrist and ankles  
flat bones   bone classification; bones of ribs, shoulder blads, pelvis, and skull  
irregular bones   bone classification; bones of vertebrae and face  
sesamoid bones   bone classification; round bones that are found near joints (e.g. patella)  
epiphysis   parts of long bone; wide ends of a long bone (physis = growth)  
diaphysis   parts of long bone; shaft of a long bone  
metaphysis   parts of long bone; growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone  
endosteum   parts of long bone; membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone  
medullary cavity   parts of long bone; cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow  
>> bone marrow   soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bones  
>>red bone marrow   found in cavities of most bones in infants; functions in formation of red blood cells, some white blood cells and platelets; in adults, red bone marrow is found most often in the flat bones  
>>yellow bone marrow   gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones, functions as storage for fat tissue, and is inactive in formation of blood cells  
periosteum   parts of long bone; a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone  
articular cartilage   parts of long bone; a gristle-like substance found on bones where they articulate  


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