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NAU The Nervous System 3

Quiz yourself by thinking what should be in each of the black spaces below before clicking on it to display the answer.

Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from the nervous system.   Effector  
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses from the spinal cord and brain.   Efferent or Motor Neuron  
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain   Afferent or Sensory Neuron  
Functional cells that transmits impulses   Neuron  
Brings information into the neuron   Dendrite  
Takes information away from the neuron   Axon  
Body of the neuron   Soma or Perikaryon  
Protects, cleans up after neurons. Does not transmit an impulse. Ex: mom cells   Neuroglia  
12 Cranial Nerves and what they do in order:   Olfactory-Sensory, Optic-Sensory, Oculomotor-Motor, Trochlear-Motor, Trigeminal-Both, Abducens-Motor, Facial-Both, Vestibulocochlear-Sensory, Glossopharyngeal-Both, Vagus-both, Spinal Accessory-Motor, Hypoglossal-Motor  
The 5 Sensory Receptors:   Chemoreceptors, Photorecptors, Thermoreceptors, Mechanoreceptors and Proprioreceptors  
Makes up Chemoreceptors:   Smell and Taste  
Receptors that chemically convert into a perception   Chemoreceptors  
Receptors that receive light   Photorecptors  
Receptors that are superficial and deep. Determine what is hot and cold. Receptors responsible for fever, chills and hot flashes   Thermoreceptors  
Receptors that cause a mechanical movement of something. Hearing, equilibrium, touch and pain.   Mechanoreceptors  
Receptors that determines where you are at in space. Receptors that continue to develop into adulthood.   Proprioreceptors  
Types of photo receptors:   Rods and Cones  
Gives perception of light and dark in shades of grey.   Rods  
Deals with color. Takes light and determines the specific color of light seen. Ex: red, blue, green, yellow   Cones  
Absence of light   Black  
Presence of all colors   White  
5 special senses:   Vision, Taste, Equilibrium, Touch and Smell  
5 general senses:   Pressure, Temperature, Touch, Visceroreceptors and Proprioreceptors  
Receptors made up of the Pacinian corpuscles   Pressure  
Receptors made up of Messiner's corpuscles and Tatcile corpuscles   Touch  
11 Anatomical parts that makes up the eye:   Conjunctiva, Lacrimal and nasolacrimal ducts, Sclera, Choroid, Retina, Cornea, Aquacous Humor, Vitrous Humor, Lens, Extrinsic Muscles, Intrinsic Muscles which includes the Iris  
Protective coating over the eye, covers the sclera. Sometimes referred to the whites of the eye.   Conjunctiva  
Inflammation of the conjunctiva   Conjunctivitis  
Gland above the eye. Provides lubrication for the eyes.   Lacrimal gland  
Ducts in the corner of the eye. Also provides lubrication for the eyes.   Nasolacrimal ducts  
True white portion of the eyes. Gives the outercoat to the eye. Helps maintain the shape of the eye.   Sclera  
Functions to absorb light, carries many blood vessels that go to the back of the eye and contains the ciliary body.   Choroid  
Helps suspend the lens in the eye   Ciliary body  
Contains rods and cones. Receives info via the optic nerve and optic disk   Retina  
The axon portion of the rods and cones come together and form this   Optic Nerve  
Cone and rod fibers leave the retina and become part of the optic nerve, forming this   Optic Disk or Blindspot  
Window of the eye. Bubble glass portion over the eye.   Cornea  
When the bubble glass portion of the eye becomes clouded.   Cataracts  
Fluids in the eye:   Aquaeous Humor and Vitrous Humor  
Fluid in front and behind the iris also right under the cornea, gives the bubble shape to the cornea.   Aquaeous Humor  
Means jelly-like, also help give the eyeball its shape   Vitrous Humor  
Increased occular pressure on the rods and cones, can lead to blindness   Glaucoma  
Suspended by ciliary body, is the divider between the Aquaeous Humor and Vitrous Humor.   Lens  
When the lens of the eyes sees close up and not far away. Also called near-sightedness   Myopia  
When the lens of the eyes sees far away and not close up. Also called far-sightedness   Hyperopia  
Moves the eyeball along with the Oculomotor nerve.   Extrinsic Muscles  
Autonomic movement of the eyeball   Intrinsic Muscles  
Colored area of the eye that acts to regulates the amount of light received into the eye through the pupil   Iris  
The opening center of the Iris   Pupil  
Nerve supply to the eye:   Optic, Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal, Oculomotor  
Nerve made up of the axons from rods and cones   Optic Nerve  
Nerve that detects pain and touch in the eye   Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal  
Muscle that provides involuntary and voluntary impulses to the eye. Moves the eye left and right, up and down.   Oculomotor  
Steps of vision:   Light hits the cornea, through Aquaeous Humor, through Iris via pupil, back through Aquaeous Humor to lens, through Vitrous Humor, then to retina via rods & cones, to optic nerve, then crosses at optic chiasma, into occipital lobe for intrepretation.  
The point where light crosses on the optical nerve is called   Optic Chiasma  
Makes up the Ear:   Outer Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear  
Makes up the Outer Ear:   Pinna or Auricle and External Auditory Canal  
Makes up the Middle Ear:   Malleous, Incus, Stapes and Tympanic Membrane  
Makes up the Inner Ear and are mechanoreceptors:   Semicircular Canals, Cochlea, Vestibule  
Captures Sound and funnels to the head   Pinna or Auricle  
Lined with ciliary and ceruminous glands, helps to keep harmful things away from the ear   External Auditory Canal  
Known as the eardrum, vibrates from sound   Tympanic Membrane  
3 Bones of the middle ear:   Malleous, Incus and Stapes  
Helps the ear determine where it is in space   Semicircular Canals  
Seashell shaped contains endolymph and has inner ear receptors   Cochlea  
A bony chamber located between the cochlea and the semicircular canals. Houses membranous structures that serve hearing and equilibrium   Vestibule  
2 types of fluid found in the ear   Endolymph and Perilymph  
Contains about 16,000 hearing receptor cells. Is the hearing sections of the ear.   Organ of Corti  
Four parallel rows of cells with many hair-like processes that extend into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. Are proprioreceptors and mechanoreceptors.   Hair cells  
Hair-like processes in the ear, helps make up Hair cells.   Stereocilia  
Tent-like structure over the hearing portion of the ear   Tectorial membrane  
Rupture of the ear drum or repetitive noise which can scar the ear drum   Hearing loss  
Steps of hearing:   Starts in Pinna, External Accoustic Meatus, Tympanic, Malleous, Incus, Stapes, Oval Window, Endolymph & Periplymph fluid, Organ of Corti, Tectoral membrane, hair cells derforms, transmits Vestibulocochlear nerve to temporal lobe for intrepretation  
2 types of Equilibrium   Static Equilibrium and Dynamic Equilibrium  
Is stationary for balancing. Knowing orientation while standing still. Has hair cells on the surface that deform to let your body know where it is.   Static Equilibrium  
A jelly-like substance that reports the position of the head while moving   Macula  
Knowing where you are in space while you are moving. Located in the semicircular canals.   Dynamic Equilibrium  
Crystals in the head along the hair cells that help with equilibrium   Otolith  
Gelatinous fluid that swells around the ending of the semicircular canal.   Ampulla  
When the head moves, this also moves and deforms the hair cells and will adjust to the new equilibrium   Cupula  
Another term for taste   Gustation  
4 tastebuds   Sweet, Salty, Sour, Bitter  
Tastebud on the front tip of the tongue   Sweet  
Tastebud on the lateral, anterior aspect of the tongue   Salty  
Tastebud on the posterior, lateral aspect of the tongue   Sour  
Tastebud on the posterior, middle aspect of the tongue.   Bitter  
Receptors embedded in the tongue for taste   Tastebuds  
Receptors located in the epithelium of the superior region of the nasal cavity   Smell or Olfaction  
These bulbs sit on the cribform plate, so the sense of smell hit the Olfactory nerve, which leads to the brain, associating smell with memory.   Olfactory bulbs  
Where you are in space   Position or Equilibrium  
Widely distributed free nerve endings, internal visceral receptors.   Pain  
Free nerve endings, receptors not enclosed in capsules.   Temperature  


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