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NAU A&P 12

NAU The Nervous System 3

Any tissue or organ that carries out a command from the nervous system. Effector
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses from the spinal cord and brain. Efferent or Motor Neuron
Portion of the neuron that transmits impulses to the spinal cord and brain Afferent or Sensory Neuron
Functional cells that transmits impulses Neuron
Brings information into the neuron Dendrite
Takes information away from the neuron Axon
Body of the neuron Soma or Perikaryon
Protects, cleans up after neurons. Does not transmit an impulse. Ex: mom cells Neuroglia
12 Cranial Nerves and what they do in order: Olfactory-Sensory, Optic-Sensory, Oculomotor-Motor, Trochlear-Motor, Trigeminal-Both, Abducens-Motor, Facial-Both, Vestibulocochlear-Sensory, Glossopharyngeal-Both, Vagus-both, Spinal Accessory-Motor, Hypoglossal-Motor
The 5 Sensory Receptors: Chemoreceptors, Photorecptors, Thermoreceptors, Mechanoreceptors and Proprioreceptors
Makes up Chemoreceptors: Smell and Taste
Receptors that chemically convert into a perception Chemoreceptors
Receptors that receive light Photorecptors
Receptors that are superficial and deep. Determine what is hot and cold. Receptors responsible for fever, chills and hot flashes Thermoreceptors
Receptors that cause a mechanical movement of something. Hearing, equilibrium, touch and pain. Mechanoreceptors
Receptors that determines where you are at in space. Receptors that continue to develop into adulthood. Proprioreceptors
Types of photo receptors: Rods and Cones
Gives perception of light and dark in shades of grey. Rods
Deals with color. Takes light and determines the specific color of light seen. Ex: red, blue, green, yellow Cones
Absence of light Black
Presence of all colors White
5 special senses: Vision, Taste, Equilibrium, Touch and Smell
5 general senses: Pressure, Temperature, Touch, Visceroreceptors and Proprioreceptors
Receptors made up of the Pacinian corpuscles Pressure
Receptors made up of Messiner's corpuscles and Tatcile corpuscles Touch
11 Anatomical parts that makes up the eye: Conjunctiva, Lacrimal and nasolacrimal ducts, Sclera, Choroid, Retina, Cornea, Aquacous Humor, Vitrous Humor, Lens, Extrinsic Muscles, Intrinsic Muscles which includes the Iris
Protective coating over the eye, covers the sclera. Sometimes referred to the whites of the eye. Conjunctiva
Inflammation of the conjunctiva Conjunctivitis
Gland above the eye. Provides lubrication for the eyes. Lacrimal gland
Ducts in the corner of the eye. Also provides lubrication for the eyes. Nasolacrimal ducts
True white portion of the eyes. Gives the outercoat to the eye. Helps maintain the shape of the eye. Sclera
Functions to absorb light, carries many blood vessels that go to the back of the eye and contains the ciliary body. Choroid
Helps suspend the lens in the eye Ciliary body
Contains rods and cones. Receives info via the optic nerve and optic disk Retina
The axon portion of the rods and cones come together and form this Optic Nerve
Cone and rod fibers leave the retina and become part of the optic nerve, forming this Optic Disk or Blindspot
Window of the eye. Bubble glass portion over the eye. Cornea
When the bubble glass portion of the eye becomes clouded. Cataracts
Fluids in the eye: Aquaeous Humor and Vitrous Humor
Fluid in front and behind the iris also right under the cornea, gives the bubble shape to the cornea. Aquaeous Humor
Means jelly-like, also help give the eyeball its shape Vitrous Humor
Increased occular pressure on the rods and cones, can lead to blindness Glaucoma
Suspended by ciliary body, is the divider between the Aquaeous Humor and Vitrous Humor. Lens
When the lens of the eyes sees close up and not far away. Also called near-sightedness Myopia
When the lens of the eyes sees far away and not close up. Also called far-sightedness Hyperopia
Moves the eyeball along with the Oculomotor nerve. Extrinsic Muscles
Autonomic movement of the eyeball Intrinsic Muscles
Colored area of the eye that acts to regulates the amount of light received into the eye through the pupil Iris
The opening center of the Iris Pupil
Nerve supply to the eye: Optic, Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal, Oculomotor
Nerve made up of the axons from rods and cones Optic Nerve
Nerve that detects pain and touch in the eye Ophthalmic branch of the Trigeminal
Muscle that provides involuntary and voluntary impulses to the eye. Moves the eye left and right, up and down. Oculomotor
Steps of vision: Light hits the cornea, through Aquaeous Humor, through Iris via pupil, back through Aquaeous Humor to lens, through Vitrous Humor, then to retina via rods & cones, to optic nerve, then crosses at optic chiasma, into occipital lobe for intrepretation.
The point where light crosses on the optical nerve is called Optic Chiasma
Makes up the Ear: Outer Ear, Middle Ear, Inner Ear
Makes up the Outer Ear: Pinna or Auricle and External Auditory Canal
Makes up the Middle Ear: Malleous, Incus, Stapes and Tympanic Membrane
Makes up the Inner Ear and are mechanoreceptors: Semicircular Canals, Cochlea, Vestibule
Captures Sound and funnels to the head Pinna or Auricle
Lined with ciliary and ceruminous glands, helps to keep harmful things away from the ear External Auditory Canal
Known as the eardrum, vibrates from sound Tympanic Membrane
3 Bones of the middle ear: Malleous, Incus and Stapes
Helps the ear determine where it is in space Semicircular Canals
Seashell shaped contains endolymph and has inner ear receptors Cochlea
A bony chamber located between the cochlea and the semicircular canals. Houses membranous structures that serve hearing and equilibrium Vestibule
2 types of fluid found in the ear Endolymph and Perilymph
Contains about 16,000 hearing receptor cells. Is the hearing sections of the ear. Organ of Corti
Four parallel rows of cells with many hair-like processes that extend into the endolymph of the cochlear duct. Are proprioreceptors and mechanoreceptors. Hair cells
Hair-like processes in the ear, helps make up Hair cells. Stereocilia
Tent-like structure over the hearing portion of the ear Tectorial membrane
Rupture of the ear drum or repetitive noise which can scar the ear drum Hearing loss
Steps of hearing: Starts in Pinna, External Accoustic Meatus, Tympanic, Malleous, Incus, Stapes, Oval Window, Endolymph & Periplymph fluid, Organ of Corti, Tectoral membrane, hair cells derforms, transmits Vestibulocochlear nerve to temporal lobe for intrepretation
2 types of Equilibrium Static Equilibrium and Dynamic Equilibrium
Is stationary for balancing. Knowing orientation while standing still. Has hair cells on the surface that deform to let your body know where it is. Static Equilibrium
A jelly-like substance that reports the position of the head while moving Macula
Knowing where you are in space while you are moving. Located in the semicircular canals. Dynamic Equilibrium
Crystals in the head along the hair cells that help with equilibrium Otolith
Gelatinous fluid that swells around the ending of the semicircular canal. Ampulla
When the head moves, this also moves and deforms the hair cells and will adjust to the new equilibrium Cupula
Another term for taste Gustation
4 tastebuds Sweet, Salty, Sour, Bitter
Tastebud on the front tip of the tongue Sweet
Tastebud on the lateral, anterior aspect of the tongue Salty
Tastebud on the posterior, lateral aspect of the tongue Sour
Tastebud on the posterior, middle aspect of the tongue. Bitter
Receptors embedded in the tongue for taste Tastebuds
Receptors located in the epithelium of the superior region of the nasal cavity Smell or Olfaction
These bulbs sit on the cribform plate, so the sense of smell hit the Olfactory nerve, which leads to the brain, associating smell with memory. Olfactory bulbs
Where you are in space Position or Equilibrium
Widely distributed free nerve endings, internal visceral receptors. Pain
Free nerve endings, receptors not enclosed in capsules. Temperature
Created by: FKrouse