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Fund of Disease ch7

Disease of the Blood chapter 7

The four blood types are A, B, AB,+ O
Each blood type has a + or - called a Rh factor
A negative Rh blood type CAN be given to a positive Rh blood type
A positive Rh blood type CAN NOT be given to a negative Rh blood type
Erythroblastosis Fetalis(EF) only occurs when the mother's Rh factor is NEGATIVE and the father's Rh factor is POSITIVE
If a fetus receives the father's positive Rh factor trait, the mother's immune system will be sensitized(make antibodies) to the fetal blood during delivery **the mother will start creating antibodies against the fetus' Rh positive blood
Anemia is erythrocytopenia(deficiency in erythrocytes RBCs) and/or deficient hemoglobin(Hgb)
Dx of anemia is confirmed with a CBC(Complete Blood Count) and H&H(Hemoglobin(Hgb) & Hematocrit "crit")
Hemorrhagic anemia occurs when there is a substantial blood loss
Hemolytic anemia occurs when excessive destruction of erythrocytes (RBCs)
Pernicious Anemia(PA) occurs when there's a dificiency of vitamin B-12(<6 ug/day)
Hypochromic anemia occurs when there is a deficiency of iron(Fe)(<18 mg/day) AKA IDA (Iron Deficiency Anemia)
IDA (Iron Deficiencuy Anemia) AKA Hypochromic anemia, is the most common form of anemia
Hypochromic anemia(IDA/Iron Deficiency Anemia) is common in adolescent girls & boys and pregnancy
Symptoms specific to hypochromic anemia (IDA/IronDeficiencyAnemia) include cravings for ice, swelling of the tongue and dry lips
Folic acid deficiency anemia(<400mcg/day) can occur due to the insufficient consumption of vegetables
Aplastic anemia occurs when there is a dysfunction of the red bone marrow(myeloid tissue)
Signs & symptoms of all anemias include *Pallor(paleness)*Fatique(tired)*Vertigo(dizziness)*Muscle weakness*Dyspnea(difficulty breathing)*Tachycardia(fast heart rate, rapid pulse)*Cephalalgia(head pain)
Primary polycythemia(blood is hard to flow) is characterized by erythrocytosis(excessive RBCs) due to hyperactive myeloid tissue(red bone marrow)
Primary polycythemia(blood is hard to flow) causes the blood to become viscous(thick)
Tx for primary polycythemia(blood is hard to flow) is periodic therapeutic phlebotomy(bleeding)
Causes of Secondary polycythemia include 1)Living in high altitudes stimulates erythrocyte production to compensate for lower oxygen(O2) concentration 2)Being very athletic stimulates erythrocyte production to compensate for hypoxia(deficient oxygen) during strenuous exercise
Hemophilia is a genetic coagulopathy(disease condition of clotting)
Hemophilia almost always occurs in males
Hemophilia occurs due to the absence of clotting factor VIII or IX
Clotting factors are essential for proper coagulation(clotting)
Signs of severe hemophilia include 1)Epistaxis(nose bleed) 2)Purpura(a condition of ecchymosis[bruising]& petechiae[pinpoint hemorrhages] 3)Joint hemorrhages 4)Hematuria(blood in the urine)
Tx for hemophilia involves periodic administration of the missing clotting factor
Hemophiliacs should refrain from contact sports
Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura(ITP) is an autoimmune disease causing thrombocytopenia(deficiencey of thrombocytes(platelets)
ITP(Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia Purpura[bruise easily]) can cause purpura[a combination of ecchymosis{bruising}& petechiae{pinpoint hemorrhages}) & anemia(deficiency of erythrocytes(RBCs) and/or hemoglobin(Hgb)
Tx for ITP(Idiopathic Thromboctopenia Purpura) includes periodic platelet (thrombocytes) transfusions
Leukemia is characterized by extreme leukocytosis (excessive WBCs) of immature leukocytes(WBCs)
Number of WBCs seen in leukemia can exceed 200,000 mm3
Dx of leukemia is confirmed with WBC differential & bone marrow Bx(Biopsy)
Signs & symptoms of leukemia include 1)Pyrexia(fevere) 2)Lymphadenopathy(swollen lymph nodes) 3)Arthralgias(joint pain) 4)Anemia & prolonged bleeding 5)WT (WeighT) loss 6)Weakness 7)SOB(Shortness of Breath)
Types of leukemia include 1)AML(Acute Myelogenous Leukemia(5yr survival rate-40%) 2)ALL(Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia(5yr survival rate-85% in children,50% in adults 3)CML(Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia(5yr survival rate-90% 4)CLL(Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia(5yr survival rate-75%)
Tx for leukemia includes chemotherapy (antineoplastics), radiation therapy & bone marrow transplantation
IM(Infectious Mononucleosis is caused by the EBV(Epstein-Barr virus)
IM(Infectious Mononucleosis is highly contagious & is commonly called the "Kissing Disease" due to the case of transmission from close personal contact
IM(Infectious Mononucleosis is also called the "College disease" because of the compromised condition of many college students due to 1)Poor nutrition 2)Inadequate sleep 3)Poorly controlled stress 4)Excessive use of ETOH(Alcohol) & tobacco
Signs & symptoms of IM(Infectious Mononucleosis) include 1)Pyrexia(fever) 2)Extreme fatique 3)Persistent pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) 4)Lymphadenopathy(swollen lymph nodes) 5)Splenomegaly(enlarged spleen)
Recovery from IM(Infectious Mononucleosis) can take weeks to months but a lasting immunity to EBV(Epstein-Barr Virus) is usually attained
A monospot is a blood test to detect the presence of the EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus)
Hodgkin's Disease(HD) is a malignancy (Cancer) of the lymphatic system
Signs & symptoms of HD(Hodgkin's Disease) include 1)Painless cervical (neck) axillary (armpit), or inquinal(groin) lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes) 2)Pyrexia(fever) 3)Fatique, 4)WT (WeighT)loss
HD(Hodgkin's Disease) is more common in 1)Caucasian men 2)Smokers 3)Exposure to the HIV(Human ImmunoDeficiencyVirus) or EBV (Epstein-BarrVirus) 4)Ages 15-35 and over 50
Tx for HD(Hodgkin's Disease) includes *Chemotherapy (antineoplastics) and radiation therapy
The remission rate for HD(Hodgkin's Disease) is 95%+
The signs & symptoms for NHL(Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma)are the same as HD(Hodgkin's Disease)
NHL(Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma has a low remission rate due to early metastasis (spread) before signs & symptoms occur
Created by: pattiluv