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fund of disease ch6

Diseases of the Cardiovascular System Chapter 6

AP(Angina pectoris) is characterized by thoracodynia(chest pain) resulting from myocardial ischemia(starvation of oxygen)
The myocardial ischemia is commonly caused by CAD(Coronary Artery Disease)
The lumen is the inside diameter of the artery
The purpose of the coronary arteries is to deliver oxygenated blood to the myocardium(muscle layer of the heart)
When an embolus(floating clot) occludes(obstructs/infarcts) a coronary artery the resulting injury is called a MI(Myocardial Infarction)
If the ischemia is not corrected, death can occur to the myocardian called myocardial necrosis
Dx(diagnosis) of a MI(myocardial infarction) is made by 1.EKG or ECG(ElectroCardioGram) 2.CPK-MB (cardiac isoenzymes)---blood test 3.Troponin levels)---blood test
CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) is AKA CHD(Coronary Heart Disease) causing stenosis(narrowing)
The stenosis (narrowing) in CAD(Coronary Artery Disease)/ CHD(Coronary Heart Disease) is caused by Atherosclerosis ----fatty plaque that forms on the lumen of the coronary arteries
A MI(myocaridal Infarction) is commonly called a "heart attack" or "coronary"
The starvation of oxygenated blood to the myocardium is called myocardial ischemia(starving)
Risk factors for CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) include 1.Heredity 2.Smoking 3.High fat diet(cholesterol, LDL(LowDensity Lipoproteins) & triglycerides 4.Sedentary Life style(obesity,little or no excerise);>40 inch waist for men,>35 inch waist for women 5.Over age 35 6.Poorly controlled stress
#2 Risk Factors for CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) 7.Chronic HTN(hypertension 8.DM(Diabetes Mellitus) 9.Elevated CRP(C-reative protein)
Tx for CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) include *.Stop smoking*.Lower Saturated fat in diet & increase HDL(HighDensityLipoproteins)/omega-3 fatty acids*.Regular exercise(walk) *.Antianginal drugs(coronary vasodilator increases diameter)*.Antihyperlipidemic(against excessive fat in blood
Tx for CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) include cont. *.Thrombolytics(breakup clots that occluded coronary arteries*Anticoagulants-prevent new thrombi forming*PTCA(Percutaneous Trans-luminalCoronaryAngioplasty*Coronary stents-prevent closure after angioplasty*CABG*EECP-EnhancedEsternalCounterPulsation
CABG stands for Coronary Artery Bypass Graph
CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graph commonly uses grafts harvested from the saphenous veins or mammory arteries & used to bypass stenosed(narrowed)or occluded coronary arteries
Types of CABG include double, triple, quadruple, or quintuple by passes
Common Signs & symptoms of MI(myocardium Infarction) or AP(Angina Pectorus) include *Thoracodynia(chest pain)*Dypnea(difficult breathing*Pallor/paleness*N&V*Diaphoresis/profuse sweating*Weakness*Syncope/faint
Best chance of surving a MI(myocardium infarction) depends on whether the infarct is resolved within 90 minutes
EECP -Enhanced External Counter Pulsation uses inflatable cuffs on the lower extremities inflating & deflating in rhythm w/the heart to increase oxygenated blood flow to the coronary arteries & stimulate development of collarteral(extra) blood vessels
CAD(Coronary Artery Disease) risk can also be reduced by 1.Drinking tea daily(flavanoids) 2.Getting 300 MCG of folate/day(tomatoes, citrus,leafy greens, beans, grains)
CHF(Congestive Heart Failure) is caused by a weak pump
There can be any combination of signs & symptoms or the victim may be asymptomatic(No symptoms)
An asymptpmatic MI is AKA silent MI(myocardium infarction)/most dangerous because the victim has no reason to seek help
STEMI times refers to the time between a ST(stemi time) elevation MI(myocardium infarction) (EKG normal sinus rhythm(NSR)
PTCA stands for Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
Causes of CHF(Congestive Heart Failure) *MI(myocardial infarction)*Myocardial atrophy from a sedentary life style/obesity*Valvular disease(valves are bad)*Chornic HTN(HyperTension/high blood pressure)
Right sided CHF(Congestive Heart Failure) can cause a.Pedal(feet & Ankles)edema b.Neck vein distention c.Hepatomegaly(enlargement of liver)
Left sided CHF(Congestive Heart Failure)can cause *dyspnea(difficult breath)or DOE(Dynpnea On Exertion from pulmonary edema(swelling)
Tx for CHF/congestive heart failure includes 1.Decrease Na(sodium) intake 2.Lanoxin(digoxin) 3.Diuretics(lasix)
RHD (Rheumatic Heart Disease) is a sequela(aftermath) of RF (Rheumatic Fever) can cause mitral stenosis
RF (Rhuematic Fever) is an autoimmune disease that occurs 1-6 weeks following a Group A streptococcal infection
Mitral insufficiency is AKA mitral regurgitation
Mitral insufficiency can be caused by MVP (Mitral Valve Prolapse)
Mitral insufficiency can range in severity from asymptomatic to pulmonary edema(swelling)
Tx for Mitral insufficiency includes valvuloplasty (surgical repair of the mitral valve)
Valvular (valve) Disorders include 1.Mitral stenosis 2.Mitral insufficiency 3.AS (Aortic Stenosis)
Mitral Stenosis occurs when the bicuspid valve is narrow and the cusps become rigid and fuse together
Due to the mitral stenosis the congested blood flow can cause pulmonary edema(swelling), cyanosis(blue coloring), and thrombus(clot) formation
Tx for mitral stenosis includes valvuloplasty(surgical repair of the mitral valve)
Signs & symptoms of RF(Rheumatic Fever) include *pyrexia(fever)*arthritis & sometimes a rash
RF (rheumatic fever) & RHD (rheumatic Heart Disease) can be prevented by prompt treatment of a streptococcal infection with antibiotics
Mitral insufficiency occurs when the bicuspid valve is unable to close completely
AS (Aortic Stenosis) is a narrowing of the aortic semilunar valve
AS (aortic stenosis) can lead to inadequate blood flow to the brain causing syncopal (faint) episodes
Tx for AS(aortic stenosis) includes valvuloplasty(surgical repair of the bicuspid valve
Vulvular defects can be detected with cardiac ausculation(listening with a stethoscope)
Blood regurgitation past an incomplete valve can create a sound that can be auscultated(listening w/ a stethoscope) is called a bruit or murmur
Dx of valvular defects is confirmed with echocardiography, cardia catheterization or phonocardiography
Complications of IE (Infectous endocarditis) include emboli production & valve damage
Tx for IE (Infectous Endocarditis) includes antibiotic therapy
Prophylactic (preventive) antibioltica are commonly prescribed for high risk patients before surgery or dental procedures
The primary cause of an aneurysm is arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
An aneurysm has the possibility of disecting (rupturing) and causing life threatening internal hemorrhage
Tx for an aneurysm includes aneurysmectomy (surgical removal of the aneurysm) and replacement with an artifical graft
IE (Infectious Endocarditis) is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the endocardium(inner lining of the heart)
Risk factors for IE (Infectious Endocarditis include pre-existing heart disease and IV (IntraVenous) drug use
Vasular (Blood Vessels) Diseases include 1. an aneurysm 2.PAD(Peripheral Arterial Disease) 3.Thrombophlebitis 4.Varicose Veins(VV) 5.Hemorrhoids 6.Esophageal varices
An aneurysm is an asymptomatic (no symptomes) weak area in an arterial septum(wall)
Aneurysms commonly occur in the thoracic(chest) or adbominal aorta
AAA stands for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
PAD stands for Peripheral Artery Disease
PAD (peripheral artery disease) is commonly cause by atheroscerosis (abnormal condition of hardening of the arteries)
The arteries commonly affected by PAD (peripheral artery Disease) include the femorals (thigh) & popliteals (back of knee)
Signs & symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD) include a)Intermittent claudication (pain in leg when walking) b)thinning of skin on legs c)tactile(touch) coolness d)Absent or thready(weak) pulses
Tx for PAD(peripheral artery disease) includes preventing injury, anticoagulants, exercise and surgery
Thrombophlebitis is an inflammation of a vein(usually in lower leg) with the formation of a thrombus(clot)
The thrombus can occlude(obstruct) a vein & cause edema(swelling)
A complication of thrombophlebitis is embolism (floating clot)
Tx for thrombophlebitis includes anticoagulants, antibiotics, and rest
DVT stands for Deep Vein Thromosis /legs
Prevention of DVT (deep vein thrombosis) includes a)Proper hydration b)Ambulation (risk increases 30% on long airline flights)
Varicose Veins (VV) are superficial swollen, twisted, knotty, veins (varicosities) of the legs
Varicose Veins(VV) are commonly caused by a)Standing or sitting for long periods of time without moving b)crossing legs c)pregnancy d)heredity e)obesity
Tx for VV (varicose veins) include a)Compression therapy(TED or Jobst hose b)ligation(tying) and stripping(removing) c)Sclerotherapy(injected chemical causing the vein to close) d)Radiofrequency ablation(vein colapse) e)Laser therapy ablation
Hemorrhoids are varicous veins of the anus & rectum
Hemorrhoids can cause pain, pruritus(itching) and bleeding
Causes of hemorrhoids include *chronic constipation and pregnancy
Tx for hemorrhoids includes a)Anti-inflammatory creams, wipes & suppositories(Preparation H) b)Hemorrhoidectomy(surgical removal of a hemorrhoid)
Esophageal varices are varicose veins of the esophagus can be caused by cirrhosis (degeneration) of the liver
Esophageal varices can cause fatal hemorrhages to occur
Tx for Esophageal varices involves injection of a sclerosing solution into the varices to harden the veins called ENDOSCOPIC SCLEROTHERAPY
HTN--HyperTensioN refers to chronic(persistant/recurring) high blood pressure
HTN(HyperTensioN) is usually asymotomatic (the "SILENT KILLER")
Damage caused by HTN(HyperTensioN) includes a)CHF (congestive heart failure) b)MI (myocardial Infarction) c)Renal(kidney) damage d)CVA (Cerebral Vascular Accident) AKA "a stroke"
HTN (HyperTensioN) of unknown cause is called 1)essential hypertension or 2)idiopathic hypertension (unknown) or 3)primary hypertension
HTN (HyperTensioN) can usually be controlled with a)proper diet/low LDLs(LowDensity Lipoproteins) high HDLs(High Density lipoproteins/good cholestrl) low in Na(sodium).b)RegularExercise c)Stress Management d)Elimination of caffeine(coffee,tea,soda) nicotine,alcohol(ETOH) e)Antihypertensive medication
DASH stands for Diatary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
Shock is any condition that reduces the heart's ability to pump(circulate) blood
Types of shock include Hypovolemic shock*Neurogenic shock* Anaphylactic shock *Cardiogenic shock*Septic Shock
Hypovolemic Shock is caused by fluid volume loss which can be caused by hemorrhage or dehydration(vomiting,diarrhea, diaphoresis/profuse sweating, severe burns)
Neurogenic shock is caused by generalized vasodilation(increased diameter of the blood vessels) which can be caused by drugs(poisons), anesthesia, and brain or spinal cord injury
Anaphylactic shock is caused by an exaggerated allergic response
Cardiogenic shock is caused by extensive damage to the myocardiam(muscle layer of the heart)
Septic shock is caused by one infection after another
Created by: pattiluv