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Sociology Ch. 3

Culture

QuestionAnswer
The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society Culture
Our biological and genetic makeup Nature
Our social environment Nurture
An unlearned, biologically determined behavior pattern common to all members of a species that predictable occurs whenever certain environmental conditions exist Instinct
An unlearned, biologically determined, involuntary response to some physical stimuli Reflex
Unlearned, biologically determined impulses common to all members of a species that satisfy need such as those for sleep, food, water, or sexual gratification Drive
Consists of the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share Material Culture
The knowledge, techniques, and tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms, and the knowledge and skill required to use them after they are developed Technology
Consists of the abstract or intangible human creations of society the influence people's behavior such as language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns, and political systems Nonmaterial Culture
The entail acceptance or conviction that certain things are true or real Belief
Customs and practices that occur across all societies such as appearance, activities, social institutions, and customary practices Cultural Universals
Four common nonmaterial cultural components which contribute to both harmony and strife in a society Symbols, Language, Values, and Norms
Anything that meaningfully represents something else Symbol
A set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another Language
Language shapes the view of reality of its speakers Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture Values
Valus that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive Value Contradictions
The values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold Ideal Culture
The values and standards of behavior that people actually follow Real Culture
Established rules of behavior or standards of conduct Norms
State what behavior is appropriate or acceptable Prescriptive Norms
State what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable Proscriptive Norms
Written down and involve specific punishments for violators; most commonly laws; enforced by sanctions Formal Norms
rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior Sanctions
Unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity Informal Norms
Informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture Folkways
Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture Mores
Mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable Taboos
Formal, stadardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions Laws
Deals with disputes among persons or groups Civil Law
Deals with public safety and wellbeing Criminal Law
Changes that make a significant difference in many people's lives New Technology
A gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions Cultural Lag
The process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized Discovery
the process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form Invention
The transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another through such means s exploration, war, the media, tourism, and immigration Diffusion
The wide range of cultural differences found between and within nations Cultural Diversity
Include people who share a common culture and who are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds Homogeneous Society
Include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity Heterogeneous Society
A category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms, that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture Subculture
A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles Counterculture
The disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe that they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life Culture Shock
The practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture Ethnocentrism
The belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture's own standards Cultural Relativism
Consists of classical music, opera, ballet, live theater, and other activities usually patronized by elite audiences High Culture
Consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes Popular Culture
Views high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes; proposed by Pierre Bourdieu Cultural Capital Theory
People who share similar artistic, recreational, and intellectual interests but are not necessarily members of an organized group Taste Publics
Made up of people who not only share similar tastes but also participate in the same cultural groups or organizations Taste Cultures
A temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people Fad
A currently valued style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad Fashion
The extensive infusion of one nation's culture into other nations Cultural Imperialism
An integrated system of ideas that is external to, and coerce of, people Ideology
Objects outside ourselves that we purchase to satisfy our human needs or wants Commodities
Created by: Vanity