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Chapt 21 Laboratory Procedures

The processes of removing tissue from a patient for microscopic examination is called what? BIOPSY
The following blood collections tubes contain an anticoagulant EXCEPT: Blue - Lavender-Gray-Green-Red RED- 324 -This collection tube is used to collect serum for chemistry and serology test.
A urine specimen that is collected at any time of the day is referred to as:clean catch-random-24 hour-postprandial RANDOM - Means at any time 324
What does CLEAN CATCH MEAN? A method of collection of urine in which the patient cleans the area of the urinary meatus and collects the urin in midstream
What is a 24 hour Collection? A 24 hour urine is a collection of all urine in a 24 hour period
Postprandial urine collection means what? Means after a meal
The clear liquied portion of blood that composes 55% of whole blood is? Serum-Plasma-Hemoglobin-Fibrogen-Thrombin PLASMA - 324
Appropriate locations for collecting capillary blood include the following EXCEPT: Fingertip-Earlobe-Antecubital Space-Heel Antecubital Space
The specimen used to perform a culture test for the presence of tuberculosis is? Sputum-Capillary Blood-Venous-Swab the throat SPUTUM - 325
A blood test used to indicate the level of kidney function is? Sedimentation Rate-CBC-BUN-Human Chorionic Gonadotropin-Hematocrit BUN - Blood Urea Nitrogen -Measurement of the amount of nitorgenous substance present in the blood as urea.
The solution used to ID fungal infections is? 0.9% sodium chloride-Sodium citrate-PSA-KOH KOH - Potassium Hydroxide is mixed with skin scrapings and the misture is placed on a microscope slide for analysis. 325
A urine test that compares the weight of urine with that of distilled water is? SPECIFIC GRAVITY
What is the proper technique when performing venipuncture? The bevel of the needle is face up, and the insertion angle is 15* to 30*
Proper sites for capillary punctures include the following EXCEPT:Tip of ring finger-heel of infant-tip of index finger-earlobe-tip of middle finger The best site for a finger puncture is just off the center of the finger pad of the 3rd (middle) or 4th (ring) finger of the hand. The sides and the tip of the finger should be avoided.
The normal range of urine PH is? 5.0-8.0
Which of the following is a normal adult WBC count?1000 cells/mm3-7,000 cells.mm3-20,000 cells/mm3-50,000 cells/mm3 7,000 cells/mm3 - see pg. 326 for explanation - you should look at it :)
What does a urine pregnancy test measure? RPR - VDRL-hCG-HDL hCG - Is the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone present in blood and urine during pregnancy
The color of the stopper of the vacum collection tube used to collect plasma for coagulation studies is? Blue (Yellow-Red-and black top tubes do not contain any anticoagulant additive)
The term used to describe cloudy urine is? Pale - Straw - Transparent - Amber - Turbid Turbid
Which department of the laboratory performs hemoglobin and hematocrit tests? Cytology - Bacteriology-Immunology-Hematology Hematology - Study of blood of any abnormalities of the blood forming tissue and the quality of the blood cells
What is CYTOLOGY? The department that analyzes cells to determine abnormalities
When whole blood is allowed to clot, the clear portion visible after centrifugation is the? Plasma-Buffy Coat-Serum-Hemoglobin-Fibrinogen SERUM - Is the clear liquid portion of the blood that contains no blood cells, platelets or fibrinogens
Which of the following would be considered a normal finding of urine? Protein-positive,4+ - Clarity-cloudy - Color, straw - Specific Gravity - 1.055 Color Straw - The color of normal urine is yellow and is typically described as straw colored.
T/F The protien content in urine should be negative? TRUE
If a positive protien count is found it could indicate what type of disorder? Kidney Disorder 328
Paracitology includes the study of: Worms-Fungi-Cells-Bacteria-Antibodies WORMS- It is the study of human parasites (worms and scabies) and ova (eggs).
The head of a hospital laboratory is usually a _______? Pathologist
Phlebotomists perform ______ and ______ ? Venipuncture, Blood Draw
Two non hospital locations of medical laboratories are ________ and _______ . POLS (Physicians office laboratories) and reference laboratories
The educational degree of a pathologist is __________ ? Doctor of Medicine or Osteopathy
What is - milli One Thousandth
What is -centi One Hundredth
What is -deci One Tenth
What is micro- One Millionth
The 3 major types of hazards are _____, ____ and ______. Biohazards - Chemical Hazards - Physical Hazards
An example of a physical hazard is _____ ? FIRE - TORNADO-BOMB-Electrical Dangers
And example of a chemical hazard is _____ ? Acids, Caustics, Flammables and Inhalants
What is an appropriate surface disinfectant for use in the laboratory? 10% solution of 1 part bleach and 9 parts water or 70% alcohol
T/F Bloodborne pathogens precautions apply only to patients who are known to have infectious disease: True or False FALSE
Laboratory apparel includes fluid-impermeable laboratory coats and closed toe shoes. True or False True
A slide is initially brought into focus by using the _______ power objective. LOW POWER
Ocular lenses have a magnification of _________ ? 10x
The _________ directs and concentrates light through the slide and into the objective lens. Condenser
The revolving ______ contains the objectives. Nosepiece
The ___________ objective usually has a magnification of 100x Oil immersion
The total magnification is calculated by multiplying the 10x ocular lens by the magnification of the ___________ lens. Objective Lens
The uninterrupted rise or decline from the mean is called what? TREND
The average value of a set of control tests is called what? MEAN
The variability from the mean in a dataset is? Standard
Which of the following substances is observed and counted on low power? Crystals-Casts-yeasts-bacteria CASTS
Which casts are usually found in healthy people? Renal Epithelial casts-WBC Casts-Hyaline Casts-Waxy Casts Hyaline Casts
Triple phosphate cystals resemble? Envelopes-Dumbbells-Rosettes-Coffin Lids Coffin Lids
Which is the most common parasite found in the urine? Candida Albicans-Trichomonas Vaginalis-Enterobious Vermicularis-Escherichia coli Trichomonas Vaginalis
Which of the following tubes is used for Coagulation studies? Lavender-LT Blue-Green-Gray LT BLUE
Which of the following is NOT a formed element in the blood? Platelets - Prothrombin-RBCs-WBCs Prothrombin
The complex liquid in which blood cells are suspended is called what? Plasma
The most numerous blood cells (occupying almost 50% of the blood) Erythrocytes
WBC group made up of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils Granulocytes
The agent that prevents clotting of whole blood? Anticoagulent
The most common anticoagulant used in routine hematology procedures? EDTA
Large bone marrow cell from which platelets are derived is called what? Megakaryocyte
What is the definition of RED CELL? Biconcave Disk
Define Neutrophil A nucleus has 2 to 5 segments and cytoplasm is pink/lavendar with granules
Define Eosinophils Has coarse orange-red granules
Define BASOPHILS Has blue-black granules
What are Lymphocytes? Smallest WBC
What are MONOCYTES Largest WBC
What are PLATELET's? Made of fragments of cytoplasm
What are BAND CELLS Immature Neutrophils
Define LEUKOCYTOPENIA Abnormal decrease of WBCs
Define ALL Sudden cancer of a nongranulocyte
Define Mononucleosis Presence of atypical "REACTIVE" lymphocytes
Define CML Long term cancer of granulocytes in bone marrow
Define Leukocytosis Increase in WBCs (usually from infection)
What type of specimen is required for most blood chemistry tests in the POL (think of the waived test)? Whole blood from a finger stick; serum from a red clot tube or gold SST
When plasma glucose is high, what hormone is secreted Insulin
The presence of sugar in the urnie is called? Glucosuria
A type of blood glucose test that requires no special fasting or other preparation is the ? RANDOM GLUCOSE TEST
Define LDL A lipprotein consisting of protein and cholesterol that ADHERES (STICKS)to blood vessel walls, forming plaque
Define HDL A lipoportein consisting of protein and cholesterol that REMOVES excess cholesterol from blood vessel walls
Define GLYCOGEN The form in which carbohydrates is stored in the body
Define hypoglycemia An abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
Define Hyperglycemia An abnormal increase in the glucose level in the blood
Define Lipoprotein A complex molecule consisting of protein and a fat such as cholesterol
What are the 2 main sources of cholesterol in the blood From the diet (exogenous) and the Liver (Endogenous)
What is the purpose of calibrating a blood chemistry analyzer? To check the instruments optical performance
Why is LDL cholesterol referred to as "LOUSY" Cholesterol and HDL referred to as "HEALTHY" cholesterol? LDL - STICKS to the arteries, causing plaque - HDL REMOVES the plaque
What is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis? Epstein-Bar Virus
What is ACTIVE IMMUNITY? Long term protection against future infections resulting from the production of antibodies that were formed naturally during an infection or artificially by vaccination.
What is agglutination? Clumping together of blood cells or latex beads caused by antibodies adhering to their antigens
What is an allergen? An antigen that causes an allergic reaction
What are antigens? Substances that are perceived as foreign to the body and elicit an antibody response.
Define AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES. Destructive tissue diseases caused by antibody/self antigen reactions
What are Helper T Cells (TH4 or CD4) Antigen-activated lymphocytes that stimulate other T cells and help B cells produce their antibodies.
Define HISTAMINE? Compound released by injured cells that cause the dilation of blood vessels
Define In Vitro Within a laboratory appartus
Define In Vivo Within a host or living organism
Created by: kimber954