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Mblex Study Guide

Circulatory System Review

QuestionAnswer
What is the Circulatory System Made up of? The Cardiovascular System and the Lymphatic System
What is the Cardiovascular System made up of? The Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
What is the Lymphatic System made up of? Lymph, Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic Vessels
What is the major function of the Cardiovascular System? Transportation of oxygen and nutrients to tissues and the carrying of wastes away from tissues.
The Cardiovascular System is a closed system. What is a closed system? This means the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels.
What is the part of the Card. Sys. that brings deoxygenated blood through the R side of the heart & to the lungs by way of the pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary Circulation
Where is the blood oxygenated and returned to the L side of the heart by way of the pulmonary veins? The Lungs
What are the only veins in the body that carry oxygenated blood? Pulmonary Veins
What part of the Card. Sys. pumps oxygenated blood from the L side of the heart and into the aorta? Systemic Circulation
What is the first pathway for pumping oxygenated blood to all of the body's tissues? The aorta
What are the aorta's two main parts? The ascending and descending aorta
What returns the blood to the heart? The Systemic Veins
All the veins of the systemic circulation flow into the.... Superior & Inferior venae cavae or the coronary sinus
Describe Coronary Circulation 1. The aorta supplies the heart w blood. 2. Oxygenated blood is pumped through the arteries to the myocardium 3. The myocardium is drained of deoxy-blood by cardiac veins & empty into the coronary sinus 4. Deoxy-blood is returned to the R atrium
Where is the heart located? The Mediastinum
Where is the Mediastinum located? Between the lungs
What else is located in the Mediastinum? The great vessels of the heart, thoracic duct of the lymphatic sys., the vagus & phrenic nerves, the trachea, the esophagus, & the thymus
What is the sac that surrounds the heart called? The parietal pericardium
What is the Parietal Pericardium's purpose? It protects the heart and anchors it to surrounding tissues.
What are the two layers of connective tissue that make up the Pericardium? an outer fibrous layer & an inner layer of serous membrane
What are the three layers of heart tissue? The epicardium, Endocardium, Myocardium
Which layer of the heart is the thickest layer consisting of involuntary striated & branched cardiac muscle responsible for contractions of the heart? the Myocardium
Which layer of the heart consists of an inner layer of endothelium w underlying connective tissue? the Endocardium
Which layer of the heart is an outer serous membrane continuous with the parietal pericardium? The Epicardium
What are the two upper chambers of the heart called? Atria
What are the two lower chambers of the heart called? Ventricles
What are the appendages of the atrium called? Auricles
Is the atria or ventricle 1 muscle separated along the sagittal plane of the heart by an interatrial septum? The Atria
Is it the atria or the ventricle that is 1 muscle separated sagittally by an interventricular septum? The ventricle
Deoxygenated blood flows in the following manner.... 1.Superior/Inferior Venae Cavae & Coronary Sinus 2. R Atrium 3. through Tricuspid Valve to R Ventricle 4. Out R ventricle through pulmonary trunk 5. to lungs 6. Through Pulmonary Veins 7. To L atrium 8. Through Bicuspid Valve 9. To L Ventricle 10. Aorta
What is located between the Atria and the Ventricles? Atrioventricular Valves
Is the Tricuspid Valve on the R or L side of the heart? Right Side
Is the Bicuspid (Mitral) valve on the R or L side of the heart? Left
What prevents the backflow of blood into the atria? Chordae Tendineae
What prevents the backflow of blood into the ventricles? Semilunar Valve
Heart physiology can be organized into what two general categories? Electrical & Mechanical Events
What is responsible for coordinating the Electrical Events of the Heart? The Intrinsic Conduction System
What is impulse conduction initiated by? The Sinoatrial node (SA Node or Pacemaker)
Once the impulse of the Sinoatrial node is initiated the charge spreads across what to cause both of them to contract? The atria
What is the last area in the atrium to receive the SA impulse? the atrioventricular valve
The AV node depolarizes and sends an electrical impulse through the atrioventricular bundle also known as .... Bundle of HIS
The AV bundle divides at the septum into the R and L bundle branches and further branches into Purkinje Fibers
What type of events of the heart include the cardiac cycle, hearts sounds, blood pressure, and cardiac output? Mechanical Events
Systole of the cardiac cycle is also known as Contraction
Diastole of the cardiac cycle is also known as Relaxation
The pumping action of the ventricles is more commonly known as the... Heart Beat
The lubb sound is made by the closing of which valves? The Atrioventricular valves
The Dubb sound is made by the closing sound of which valves? Semilunar Valves
What is the average heartbeat? 75 beats per minute
The peak pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are contracting? Systolic Pressure
The minimum pressure in the arteries when the ventricles are filled with blood? Diastolic Pressure
What is normal blood pressure 115 Systolic and 75 Diastolic
What is the difference between systolic and diastolic pressure called? Pulse Pressure
What is the volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute called? Cardiac Output
Under normal resting conditions, how much blood does the human heart pump per minute? 5.5 liters
What is the study of blood, the blood forming organs and blood diseases? Hematology
What are the principle functions of blood? Transportation, Regulation of Body Temperature, PH, Fluid Balance, and Protection against microbes and toxic substances
Approximately how much of the body's weight is made up of blood? 8%
What is the average temperature of blood? 100 degrees
What is the formation of blood called? Hemopoiesis
Where does Hemopoiesis take place? In Red Bone marrow & Lymphoid Tissues
What iron bearing protein transports the bulk of oxygen that is carried in the blood? Hemoglobin
What are red blood Cells called? erythrocytes
What is the normal life span of erythrocytes? 90 to 120 days
What are white blood cells called? Leukocytes
A granular leukocyte that removes microbes and toxic substances by phagocytosis Neutrophils
Granular leukocytes that produce antihistamines and sometimes acts as phagocytes Eosinophils
Granular leukocytes that enter the connective tissue and become mast cells. They produce histamines and secrete heparin Basophils
Agranular leukocyte that acts with neutrophils to combat infection and inflammation through phagocytosis Monocytes
Agranular Leokocytes that are the principle cells of the immune system and are involved in both antibody and cell mediated immune responses Lymphocytes
Where are Agranular leukocytes produced? Myeloid and Lymphoid Tissues
What help stop blood loss by promoting clotting? Platelets
What is the liquid part of blood that is about 92% water and 8% solute? Plasma
What makes up blood vessels? Arteries, Arterioles, capillaries, sinusoids, venules, and veins
What part of blood vessels carry blood away from the heart? Arteries and arterioles
What part of blood vessels are involved with the processing and delivery of blood? Sinusoids and Capillaries
What part of blood vessels return blood to the heart? Venules and veins
What are arteries constructed of? Tunica externa, tunica media, and tunica interna
What type of immunity refers to the body's defenses that do not discriminate between one threat or another and include such things as Physical barries (skin, hair, mucus) and Reflexes (coughing, vomiting) Nonspecific Immunity
What type of immunity is produced by lymphatic tissue and immune cells (antibodies, T-lymphocytes, B-Cells) Specific Immunity
What type of immunity cells prepare the cells for phagocytosis? Antibodies
A T-lymphocyte that secretes complement proteins? Killer T-Cells
A T-lymphocyte that coordinates the activities of killer cells, B-Lymphocytes and microphages Helper T Cells
A T-lymphocyte that logs the combined strategies facilitated by helper cells and direct the helper cells if repeated exposure occurs. Memory T Cells
A T-lymphocyte that turns off the activity of killer cells after the microbe has been neutralized. Suppressor T Cells
A T-lymphocyte that secretes antibody proteins that bond to antigen sites on microbial proteins in a lock and key relationship. B-lymphocytes
What are lymphoid nodules in the mucosal lining of the small intestine called? Peyer's Patches
Lymphoid Organs include.... The Spleen, Thymus, tonsils, and Peyer's Patches
What involves the blood circulation to the kidneys, receives 20% of cardiac output, sends filtered blood directly back up to the heart for recirculation? Renal Circulation
What subdivision of the systemic circulation collects blood from the veins of the Pancreas, Spleen, Stomach, Intestines and Gall Bladder? The Hepatic Portal Circulation
Circulatory Conditions which are caused by inadequate blood supply.. Angina Pectoris and Myocardial Infarction
Circulatory Condition which is a sac formed by an out pocketing of a portion of an arterial or venous wall? aneurysm
A Circulatory Condition caused by formation of plaque in the wall of an artery? Atherosclerosis
AKA High Blood Pressure Hypertension or Systemic Arterial Hypertension
A blood clot lodged in place often behind a valve or varicose veins is called? Thrombus
A traveling blood clot is called? Embolus
When an embolus becomes lodged in a capillary blocking blood flow it's called? Embolism
A group of brain dysfunctions related to disease of blood vessels supplying the brain... Cerbrovascular Diseases
A disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. Stroke
The presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.. Hypercholesterolemia
What is another name for platelets? Thrombocytes
What makes up 60% of all white blood cells? Neutrophils
What are the two layers of the serous pericardium? The parietal and the visceral (epicardium) layers
The left atrium receives blood from which body structure? The pulmonary veins
What is the location of the tricuspid valve? Between the right atrium and right ventricle
Capillaries are only one cell later thick. which layer is it? Tunica intima
What part of blood plasma is involved in fighting disease? Globulin
Created by: CEckhoff