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ob/gyn

QuestionAnswer
the kidneys maintain . . . the constancy of fluids in our internal environment
kidneys are a perfect example of what type of organs homeostatic organs
the kidneys are what type of major organs major excretory organs
how do the kidneys perform their excretory functions they simultaneously regulate the volume & chemical makeup of the blood, maintaining the proper balance between water & salts & between acids & bases
name another important renal function gluconeogenesis
when would it go through this process only during prolonged fasting
the kidneys supply approximately how much glucose compared to that of the liver one-fifth as much glucose as the liver
how do the kidney's act as endocrine glands the produce the enzyme renin and the hormone erythropoietin
what does the enzyme renin do? it helps regulate blood pressure and kidney function
what does the hormone erythropoietin do? it stimulates red blood cell production in bone marrow
what do the kidneys metabolize to its active form vitamin D
what is the purpose of the urinary bladder provides a temporary reservoir for urine & three tubelike organs-- the paired ureters & the urethra (it is a temp. storage area for urine)
what does the urethra do it furnishes transportation channels for urine
the bean0shaped kidneys lie in what type of position a retroperitoneal position (between the dorsal body wall & the parietal peritoneum) in the superior lumbar region
what vertebra do the kidneys lie inbetween? extend from the level of the 12 thoracic verebra to the 3rd lumbar vertebra
what is so special about the right kidney it is crowded by the liver & lies slightly lower than the left
the lateral surface of the kidney is convex
the medial surface of the kidney is concave & has a vertical cleft called the renal hilus
what is the renal hilus? it leads into a space within the kidney called the renal sinus
what is the renal sinus allows several structures to enter or exit the kidney at the hilus & occupy the sinus
what are the 3 layers of supportive tissue that surround each kidney the fibrous renal capsule; the fatty mass called the adipose capsule & the outermost layer the renal fascia
what is the purpos of the fibrous renal capsule it adheres directly to the kidney surface, its a transparent capsule that provides a strong barrier that prevents infections in surrounding regions from spreading to the kidneys
what is the purpose of the adipose capsule it helps attach the kidney to the posterior body wall & cushions it against blows
what is the purpose of the renal fascia it is a dense fibrous connective tissue, that surrounds the kidney & its attendant membranes & also the adrenal gland & anchors these organs to surrounding structures
name the three distinct regions of the kidney the cortex, the medulla, & the pelvis
what is the most superficial region of the kidney the renal cortex
what exhibits cone-shaped tissue masses the medullary or renal pyramids
what is the purpose of the calyces in the kidneys they collect urein, which drains continuously fromteh papillae, & empty it into the renal pelvis
what type of muscle is in the walls of the calyces, pelvis & ureter smooth muscle
how do they contract rhythmically & propels urine along its course by peristalsis
each renal artery approaches a kidney and divides into 5 segmental arteries that enter the hilus
name the arteries in order segmental, lobar, interlobar, arcuate, & interlobular
name the veins; blood leaving the renal cortex interlobular, arcuate, interlobar & renal veins
what is the renal plexus a variable netwrok of autonomic nerve fibers & ganglia; it provides the nerve supply of the kidney & its ureter; it is largely supplied by sympathetic fibers from the least thoracic & first lumbar splanchnic nerves
what are the sympathetic fibers they are vasomotor fibers that regulate renal blood flow by adjusting the diameter of renal arterioles & influence the urine-forming role of thenephrons
what do the nephrons do? they carry out the processes that form urine
what is the purpose of the collecting ducts? they collect urine from several nephrons & conveys it to the renal pelvis
what does each nephron consist of a glomerulus, & a tuft of capillaries associated w. a renal tubule
what is the end of the renal tubule called the glomerular (Bowman's ) capsule; it completely surrounds the glomerulus
collectively teh glomerular capsule & the enclosed glomerulus are called what? the renal corpuscle
the glomerular's endothelium is fenestrated (penetrated by many pores); which makes these capillaries exceptionally porous
what does this type of endothelium allow? large amounts of solute-rich, virtually protein-free fluid to pas fromt eh blood into the glomerular capsule
what is the plasma-derived fluid/filtrate it is the raw material that is processed by the renal tubules to form urine
the external parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is what type of epithelium simple squamous epithelium
the visceral layer which clings to the glomerulus conssits of . . . highly modified branching epithelial cells called podocytes
what is foot processes the intertwine w. one another as they cling to the basement membraneof the glomerulus
what are the clefts or openings between the foot proceses called filtration slits or slit pores
what do they allow the filtrate to pas to the interior of the glomerular capsule, a region called the capsular space
name the 3 parts of the renal tubule glomerular capsule; proximal convoluted tubule; loop of Henle; & the distal convoluted tubule
by the renal tuble increasing its length what does it enhance its filtrate processing capabilities
the collecting ducts receive urine frommany nephrons, by running through the medullary pyramids & give them their striped appearance
as the collecting ducts approach the rnal pelvis the fust to form the large papillary ducts
what is the purpose of the papillary ducts? to deliver urine into the minor calyces via papillae of the pyramids
the walls of the proximal convoluted tubule are formed by what type of cells cuboidal epithelial cells
what do these cells do they actively reabsorb substances from the filtrate & secrete substances into it; th cells have large mitochondria & their luminal surfaces bear dense microvilli that tremendously increase their surface area
what is a nickname for all of this? "brush border"
why does it have this name bc it dramatically increases their capacity for reabsorbing water & solutes from the filtrate
the descending limb of the U-shaped loop of Henle is called what the thin segment
what type of epithelium is present in the this segment simple squamous epithelium that is freely permeable to water
what is the thick segment when the epithelium becomes cuboidal or even low columnar in the ascending part of the loop of Henle
epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule are confined tot eh cortex & are cuboidal, but they are somewhat thinner & almost entirely lack microvilli
these tubule paly a greter role in what? secreting solutes into the filtrate than in reabsorbing substances from it
the DCT is sometimes called what? connecting tubule
the collecting ducts are what type of cells intercalated cells, cuboidal cells w. abundant microvilli & more numerous principal cells which lack microvilli
what do the intercalated cells play a major role in maintaining the acid-base balance of the blood; the prinipal cells help maintain the body's water & Na+ (salt) balance
the cortical nephrons represent 85% of the nephrons in the kidneys
where are the cotical nephrons located entirely int he cortex
the juxtamedullary nephrons play an important role in what? the kidney's ability to produce concentrated urine
every nephron is closely associated w. two capillary beds, name them. the glomerulus & the peritubular capillaries
the glomerulus is specialized for filtration
how does te glomerulus differ from all other capillary beds in the body it is both fed & drained by arterioles (afferent & efferent)
the afferent arterioles arise from the interlobular arteries that run through the renal cortex
what is the difference in size between the afferent arterioles & the efferent the afferent have a larger diameter tan the efferent
blood pressure in the glomerulus is extrodinarily high for a capillary bed & easily forces fluid and solutes out of the blood intot he glomerular capsule along nearly its entire length
most of the filtrate (99%) is reabsorbed by what? it is returned where? reabsorbed by the renal tubule cells & returned to the blood in the peritubular capillary beds
the peritubular capillaries arise from the efferent arterioles draining the glomeruli
the peritubular capillaries are adapted for absorption
describe the pressure in the peritubular capillaries it is low-pressure, porous capillaries that redily absorb solutes & water from the tuble cells as these substances are reclaimed from the filtrate
all substances secreted by the nephrons are derived from the blood of the peritubular capillaries
what is the vasa recta bundles of long straight vessels that extend deep into the medulla paralleling the courses of the longest loops of Henle
renal blood pressure declines from aprox. __ mm Hg in the renal arteries to __ mm Hg or less in the renal veins 95; 8
juxtaglomerular (JG) cells are what type of muscle smooth muscle cells w. prominent secretory granules containing renin
what do these type of cells ace as mechanoreceptors that directly sense the blood presure in the afferent areriole
what is the macula densa a group of tall, closely packed distal tubule cells that lies adjacent to the JG cells
the mascula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in teh solute content of the filtrate in the tubule lumen
what is the filtration membrane the actual filter that lies between the blood & the interior of the glomerular capsule
what type of membrane does it have a porous membranethat allows free passage of water & solutes smaller than plasma proteins
the 3 layers of the filtration membrane are: (1) the fenestrated endothelium fo the glomerular capillaries (2) the visceral membrane of the glomerular capsule mad eof podocytes (#) the intervening basment membrane composed of the fused basal laminas of the other layers
the capillary pores (fenestrations) prevent passage of blood cels
what do capillar pores (fenestrations) allow to pass? all plasma componets
teh basement membrane restricts passage of all but the smallest proteins while permitting most other solutes to pass
the structural makeup of the gel-like basement membrane also seems to confer elevtrical selectivity on teh filtration process
what are the three major processes of urine formation glomerular filtration; tubular reabsorption; & secretion
explain what filtration is a passive, nonselective process where fluids & solutes are forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure
glomerular blood pressure is__ compared to that of other capillary beds higher
approx. what is the glomerular blood pressure 55 (-70)mm Hg; as opposed to 18 mmHg
what is this pressure result in much higher net filtration pressure
kidneys produce how many L of filtrate dily 180L
how many L of urine are produced daily 1-1.5L
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg) is what glomerular blood pressure, the chief forc pushing water & solutes out of the blood across the filration membrane
what is the pressure in teh colloid osmotic pressure in the intracapsular space of the glomerular capsule is essentially what? zero; bc virtually no proteins enter the capsule
glomerular hydrostatic pressure is about what 55-70 mm Hg
colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure of glomerular blood (OPg) is what 28 to 30 mm Hg
capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc) exerted by fluids in the glomerular capsule is about how many mm Hg 15 mm Hg
the net filtration pressure is responsible for forming what? renal filtrate from plasma (10 mm Hg)
glomerular filtration rate is the total amount of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys
the normal GFR in both kidneys in adults is 120-125 ml/min
the GFR is _____ proportional to the net filtration pressure directly
dehydration causes what to glomerular osmotic pressure increase; inhibits filtate formation
Flomerular filtration rate is held relatively constant by what 3 important mechanisms that regulate renal blood flow? renal autoregulation (intrinsic system), neural controls & the reninangiotensin system (basically a hormonal mechanism)
what is the pressure in teh colloid osmotic pressure in the intracapsular space of the glomerular capsule is essentially what? zero; bc virtually no proteins enter the capsule
glomerular hydrostatic pressure is about what 55-70 mm Hg
colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressure of glomerular blood (OPg) is what 28 to 30 mm Hg
capsular hydrostatic pressure (HPc) exerted by fluids in the glomerular capsule is about how many mm Hg 15 mm Hg
the net filtration pressure is responsible for forming what? renal filtrate from plasma (10 mm Hg)
glomerular filtration rate is the total amount of filtrate formed per minute by the kidneys
the normal GFR in both kidneys in adults is 120-125 ml/min
the GFR is _____ proportional to the net filtration pressure directly
dehydration causes what to glomerular osmotic pressure increase; inhibits filtate formation
Flomerular filtration rate is held relatively constant by what 3 important mechanisms that regulate renal blood flow? renal autoregulation (intrinsic system), neural controls & the reninangiotensin system (basically a hormonal mechanism)
where are the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms located in the walls of the distal tubules, respond to filtrate flow rate & osmotic signals by causing or not causingthe release of a chemical that produces intense vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles
when the mascula densa cells are exposed to slowly flowing filtrate or filtratew. low osmolarity they promote vasodilation of the fferent arterioles
what does this allow more blood to flow into the glomerulus, thus increasing the NFR & GFR
filtrate is flowing rapidly &/or it has a high sodium & chloride content (or high osmolarity ingeneral) the macula densa cells prompt generation of the vasoconstrictor chemical by the JG cells
what effect does this have on blood flow it hinders blood flow into the glomerulus, which decreases the GFR & allows more time for filtrate processing
the mascula densa cells send messages to the JG cells of the juxtaglmerular apparatus that set the renin-angiotensin mechanism into motion
why is this mechanism important it balances filtration & tubular reabsoption
a relatively constant blood flow through the kidneys over an arterial pressure range from 80 to 180mm Hg
once mean systemic blood pressure drops below 70 mm Hg autoregulation effectively ceases
when the sympathetic nervous sytem is at rest, the renal blood vessels are maximally dialated & renal autoregulation mechanisms prevail
the basic functional unit of the kidney is the nephron
the ability to concentrate urine depends on the functions of the loop of henle
what urine formation process results in acid elimination secretion
one of the roles of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron is to produce a concentration gradient that will allow thenephron to concentrate filtrate
when the concentration of ADH increases less urine is produced
in response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions
the blood supply to the nephron is the afferent arteriole
nephron cells that respond tot eh concentration of filtrate are macula densa cells
the most important factor affecting the glomerular filtration rate is blood hydrostatic pressure
what process results in incrased glomerular filtration in response to hormone release renin-angiotensin mechanism
what substance would probably have the lowest rebsorption rate? urea
facultative Na+ rabsorption occurs in teh distal convoluted tubule
how is Na+ reabsorbed by active transport using ATP
what substance would you not expect to find in urine protein
what structure is the muscular tube that delivers urine to the bladder ureter
what artery has the smallest diameter interlobular artery
major calyces are large brances of the renal pelvis
micturation is a sacral reflex
the bowman's capsule & glomerulus make up the renal corpuscle
creatinine a protein metabolite found in skeletal muscle & excreted in urine
glucose in the urine not normally found
Na+ in urine is reabsoption occurs w. K+ efflux; this is a common electrolyte in extracellular fluids
urea in urine a detoxified ammonia compund; produced from ammonia following deamination
uric acid in the urine a nitrogen waste product from RNA metabolism; a metabolic waste product of nucleic acid metabolism
juxtaglomerular cells specialized barorreceptors
juxtamedullary long nephrons
macula densa cells specialized chemoreceptors
renal capsule outer covering; helps provide a barrier against microbe invasion
renal fascia anchors kidneys; this tissue is made of dense irregular connective tissue
regulatory function of the kidney include the production of 2 hormoens for erythropoiesis & calciu absorption
the renal cortex contains the glomeruli
reabsorption occurs through the tubule wall & into the peritubular capillaries
the juxtaglomerular apparatus contains both osmoreceptors & barorreceptors
the myogenic control mechanism reflects the fact that vascular smooth muscle tends to contract when stretched
Created by: Brina