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C2-Body as a Whole

terms pertaining to the body as a whole

cell fundamental unit of all living things
cell membane surrounds and protects the cell and regulates what passes into and out of the cell
nucleus control the operation of the cell
chromosomes rod-like structures within the nucleus that contain regions of DNA called genes.
genes regions of DNA within each chromosome
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) chemical found within each chromosome and regulates the activities of the cell
karyotype picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
cytoplasm includes all of the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane.
mitochondria small sausage-shaped bodies that act like miniature power plants to produce energy called catabolism
endoplasmic reticulum network of canals within the cell and anabolism occurs here
anabolism process of building up complex materials or proteins from simple materials
catabolism process of breaking down complex materials or foods to form simpler substances and release energy
metabolism total of the chemical processes occuring in a cell
Types of cells muscle cell, epithelial cell, nerve cell, and fat cell
muscle cell long and slender and contains fiber that aids in contracting and relaxing
epithelial cell a lining and skin cell may be square and flat to provide protection
nerve cell may be long and have various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses
fat cell contains large, empty spaces for fat storage
types of tissues epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue, and nerve tissue
epithelial tissue located all over the body and forms the linings of internal organs and outer surface of the skin covering the body as well as the exocrine and endocrine glands
muscle tissue ability to contract and conduct impulses
types of muscle tissue Voluntary Muscle-found in arms and legs and parts of the body where movement is under conscious control Involuntary Muscle-found in the heart and digestive system as well as other organs and allows movement that is not under conscious control
connective tissue examples are adipose tissue (collection of fat cells), cartilage which is elastic, fibrous tissue attached to the bones and bone and blood
nerve tissue conducts impulses all over the body
Systems of the body digestive, urinary or excretory, respiratory, endocrine, nervous, circulatory, musculoskeletal, skin and sense organs
viscera internal organs
digestive system mouth, pharynx (throat),esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
urinary or excretory system kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
respiratory system nose, pharynx, larynx,trachea, bronchial tubes, lungs
reproductive system female:ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands male:testes, urethra,penis,prostate gland
endocrine system thyroid gland,pituitary gland, sex glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, parathyroid glands
nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves
circulatory system heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland
musculoskeletal system muscles, bones and joints
skin and sense organs skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; eye, ear, nose, and tongue
trachea or windpipe tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes
larynx or voice box located at the upper part of the trachea
pharynx or throat serves as the common passageway for food and air
pituitary gland endocrine gland at the base of the brain
thyroid gland endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
ureter 2 tubes leading from kidney to the urinary bladder
urethra tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
uterus or womb the organ that holds the embryo or fetus as it develops
Body cavity space within the body that contains internal organs
1.cranial cavity brain, pituitary gland
2.thoracic cavity lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland, aorta
division of thoracic cavity a. pleural cavity-space between the folds of the pleura surrounding each lung b. mediastinum-centrally located area outside of and between the lungs
3.abdominal cavity stomach, intestine, spleen, pancreas, liver, gallbladder
peritoneum double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal cavity
diaphragm a muscular wall dividing the abdominal and thoracic cavity
4.pelvic cavity portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus and vagina
5.spinal cavity nerves of the spinal cord
periosteum protects the bones
meninges membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord
pleura double layered membrane surrounding each lung
9 Abdominopelvic Regions of the Body: 1. right hypochondriac region right upper region below the cartilage of the ribs that extend over the abdomen
2. left hypochondriac region left upper region below the rib cartilage
3. epigastric region region above the stomach
4. right lumbar region right middle region near the waist
5. left lumbar region left middle region near the waist
6. umbilical region region of the navel or umbilicus
7. right inguinal region or right iliac region right lower region near the groin
8. left inguinal region or left iliac region left lower region near the groin
9. hypogastric region middle lower region below the umbilical region
4 Quadrants of the abdominopelvic area: 1.right upper quadrant 2.left upper quadrant 3. right lower quadrant 4. left lower quadrant
Division of the Spinal Column a. Cervical-neck region (C1-C7) b. Thoracic-chest region (T1-T12) c. Lumbar-loin (waist) or flank region d. Sacral-5 bones fused together to form the bone or sacrum 5. Coccygeal-coccyx or tailbone is a small bone composed of 4 fused pcs
anterior (ventral) front surface of the body
posterior (dorsal) the back side of the body
deep away from the surface
superficial on the surface
proximal near the point of attachment to the truck or near the beginning of a structure
distal far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure.
inferior below another structure
superior above another structure
medial pertaining to the middle or nearer the medial plane of the body
lateral pertaining to the side
supine lying on the back, face up
prone lying on the belly, face down
Planes of the Body 1. Frontal or coronal plane 2. Sagittal or lateral plane 3. Transverse Plane (cross-sectional or axial)
Frontal or coronal plane vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions
Sagittal or lateral plane lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body or structure into rights and left sides
midsagittal divides the body into right and left halves
Transverse plane horizontal plane running across the body parallel to the ground
cross-sectional plane divides the body or structure into upper and lower portions
Created by: RomeliaL.
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