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Urinalysis (Exercise 41A)

name the 3 major factors that blood composition depends on: diet, cellular metabolism & urinary output
how many liters of blood plasma are filtered within 24 hours of the kidneys nephrons 150 to 180 liters
where does the blood plasma go through? their glomeruli into the tubules;; where it is selectively processed by tubular reabsorption & secretion
what is the urine output for a healthy human? 1.0 to 1.8 liters
what gives urine it's normal yellow color? urochrome; a pigment metabolite arising from the body's destruction of hemoglobin (via bilirubin or bile pigments)
the greater the solute concentration in uring the ____ the color deeper
what does the pH of urine range from 4.5 to 8.0 but its average value is 6.0; slightly acidic
a diet high in protein (meat, eggs, cheese) ___ the acidity of urine increase
what are these type of foods called acid ash foods
a vegetarian die ____ the alkalinity of the urine incrcreases
what type of foods are these alkaline ash diet
a bacterial infection of the urinary tract may result in urine with a ____ pH high
what is specific gravity the relative weight of a specific volume of liquid compared with an equal volume of distilled water
what is the specific gravity of distilled water 1.000 b.c 1 ml weights 1 g
what is the specific gravity of urine 1.001 to 1.030
what type of urine is 1.001 very dilute; it contains few solutes
pyelonephritis a condition that produce urine w. a high specific gravity include limited fluid intake, fever & kidney inflammation
kidney stones; renal calculi caused by urine becoming excessively conventrated & solution begin to precipitate or crystallize
name the normal constituents of urine water; urea; sodium; potassium; phosphate; sulfate ions; creatinine; uric acid; (smaller amounts of ca+, mg+ & bicarbonate ions
glycosuria indicates abnormally high blood sugar levels; presence of glucose in the urine
what may cause glycosuria? it may result from carbohydrate intake so excessive that normal physiological & hormonal mechanisms cannot clear it from the blood quickly enough
albuminuria presence of albumin in urine
what is albumin the single most abundant blood protein & is very important in maintaining the osmotic pressure of the blood; it is normally too large to pass through the glomerular filtration membrane
what does albuminuria indicate an abnormally increased permeability of the glomerular membrane
what can cause physiological albuminura excessive exertion, pregnancy or overabundant protein intake, can all temporarily increase the membrane permeability
what are pathological conditions resulting in albuminuria events that damage the glomerular membrane, such as kidney trauma due to blows, the ingestion of heavy metals, bacterial toxins, glomerulonephritis & hypertension
what is ketonuria the presence of these intermediate products of fat metabolism in excessive amounts
what does ketonuria indicate that abnormal metabolic processes are occuring; result may be acidosis & its complications
when may you expected to find ketonuria during starvation, or diets very low in carbohydrates, when inadequate food intake forces the body to use its fat stores (also seen in diabetes patients
what is hematuria the appearance of RBC, in the urine
what does this indicate? pathology of the urinary tract bc erythrocytes are too large to pass throught he glomerular pores
hemoglobinuria the presence fo hemoglobin in the urine, is a result of the fragmentation of hemolysis, of RBC;
as a result, hemoglobin is ____ into the plasma & subsequently appears in the ____ liberated; kidney filtrate
hemoglobinuria indicates various pathological conditions including hemolytic anemias, transfusion reactions, burns or renal disease
the presence of urinary nitrites might indicate___ a bacterial infection, particularly E. coli or other gram- rods; an early detection of bladder infections
bilirubinuria the appearance of bilirubin (bile pigments) in urine
what would bilirubinuria indicate? liver pathology, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis
how can you test for bilirubinuria it is signaled by a yellow foam that forms when the urine sample is shaken
what is urobilinogen it is produced in the intestine from bilirubin & gives feces a brown color; some of it is reabsorbed into the blood & either excreted back into the intestine by the liver or excreted by the kidneys int he urine
complete absence of urobilinogen may indicate what? renal disease or obstruction of bile flow in the liver
increased levels of urobilinogen may indicate what? hepatits A, cirrhosis, or biliary disease
pyuria the presence of WBC or other pus constituents in the urine
what does pyuria indicate inflammation of the urinary tract
Created by: Brina