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PMI chapter 9

PMI chapter 9 terms

QuestionAnswer
A-line A catheter placed in an artery
AV shunt/fistula/graft The permanent surgical connection of an artery and vein by direct fusion.
Basal state The resting metabolic after a 12hr fast (morning)
Bilirubin A product of the breakdown of red blood cells
CVAD Central Vascular Access Device
CVC Central Vascular Catheter
Diurnal/circadian Daily occurrence / biologic rhythms or variations having a 24 hour cycle
Edema Swelling due to abnormal accumulations of fluid in the tissues
Exsanguination Blood loss to a point where life cannot be sustained
Hematoma A swelling or mass of blood (bruise)
Hemoconcentration A decrease in the fluid content of the blood (increases RBC)
Hemolysis Destruction of RBC's
Homolyzed The condition of serum or plasma that contains hemoglobin from broken RBC's
Heparin/saline lock A catheter or cannula temporarily inserted into a vein, used for administering medication or drawing blood
Iatrogenic Used to describe an adverse condition brough on by the side effects of treatment
Icteric A specimen description for when the serum, plasma or urine sample is marked By yellow brown color from high bilirubin levels
Implanted port A chamber attached to an in-dwelling line surgically implanted under the skin (upper chest or arm)
IV Pertaining to or within a vein
Jaundice A condition characterized by increased bilirubin
Lipemia Increased lipid count in the blood
Lipemic Serum or plasma that appears milky due to high lipid content
Lymphostasis Obstruction or stoppage of lymph flow
Mastectomy Breast excision or removal
Petechiae Droplets of blood from capillaries that escape when a tourniquet is applied
PICC Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter
Preanalytical Prior to analysis
Pre-examination Prior to analysis (term used by ISO)
References ranges Normal laboratory test values for healthy individuals
Sclerosed Hardened
Pre-analytical (before analysis) Begins when test is ordered, ends when testing begins.
Syncope Medical term for fainting
Reference interval The high/low limits for test result comparison. Performed against known healthy values.
Thrombosed Clotted - refers to a vessel affected by clotting
Basal state The resting metabolic rate after a 12h fast. Usually performed in the morning.
Vasovagal Sudden faintness due to abrupt pain
Venous stasis Stagnation of normal blood flow
Altitude Increases RBC, O2,HCT, HGB, C-reactive protein. Decreases urinary creatinine and plasma renin
Dehydration Physiological variable from a lack of total body fluid. Can lead to hemoconcentration of RBC, enzymes, Fe, Ca, Na and coagulation factors
Diurnal/circadian variations The levels blood exhibit daily (diurnal) or in a 24h cycle (circadian). Can be effected by posture, activity, eating, daylight, darkness, sleep, or lack of sleep.
Age The values for blood components including: WBC, RBC, creatine and organ function
Diet Can affect result 8-12 hours after a meal. Content varies results
Drug therapy Changes concentrations of blood analyzes and affect sensitivity
Exercise Affects blood components for up to 24hrs, varies by pt condition, duration and intensity
Fever Affects hormone levels
Gender Affects concentration of blood components
Intramuscular injection Can increase levels of CK and LDH
Position Affects filtering of fluids through tissues
Pregnancy Ganges emergence ranges and can affect body fluid counts
Smoking Can negatively affect immune response
Stress Short elevations of WBC, decreased serum iron levels. Increased ACTH, catecholamine, and cortisol levels.
Temperature and humidity Influences composition of body fluids, heat causes increase in plasma, excessive sweating without replenishment causes hemoconcentration.
Burns, scars, tattoos Avoid these areas due to potential impaired circulation from burns and scars. Tattoo dyes can interfere with testing
Damaged veins Sclerosed or Thrombosed veins can occur from inflammation, disease or chemotherapy. Scarring can occur from numerous venipunctures or illegal drugs. should be avoided due to erroneous test results and impaired blood flow.
Obesity Can cause difficulties in vein location
Created by: Craig480