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med term CH 13-16

inter- inside
intra- between
par/esthes/ia condition of abnormal physical feeling of prickling, burning or numbness
pulmonary abscess localized accumulation of pus in the lungs
precordial pain chest pain over the heart
thoracodynia chest pain
substance-related mental disorders 4th most common diagnostic category for inpatient admissions
behavioral health interaction of the body and mind
psychologists diagnosis and treatment
psychiatrists medical doctors who specialize in treatment of mental disorders
affects mood aka body language
mental retardation usually genetically linked and diagnosed in early childhood
physiatry treatment of physical disorders
psych/o mind
thym/o thymus, gland in mediastinum
phren/o mind or diaphragm
iatr/o treatment
-ia, -ism condition
-mania condition of madness
-phobia condition of fear
kathis/o sitting
hedon/o pleasure
cata- down
ton/o tension, tone
confabulation effort to conceal a gap in memory by fabricating believable stories
delirium condition of confusion and irrational agitation
acro- way up high
agora/phobia fear of the outside world, crowds
phor/o to carry, bear
eu- good
eu/phoria exaggerated sense of well-being not based on reality
anthro/phobia aka social phobia fear of scrutiny
-thymia condition of the mind
eu/thymia normal range of moods and emotions
-ation process of
DT delirium tremens, tremors when going through alcohol withdrawals
drug misuse need medication but dont take as directed
pol/o pole
-ar pertaining to
cycl/o ciliary body, middle layer of the eye that holds eye lens
anthrop/o man
claustr/o closing
SAD seasonal affective disorder, depression from decreased exposure to sunlight
anorexia nervosa without appetite, highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder
bulimia nervosa binge eating and forcing it up
GAD generalized anxiety disorder, most common diagnosis but not specific to any situation or circumstance
OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder, repetitive acts bc patient feels it will prevent some harmful event
parasomnia sleep terrors
hypoactive sexual desire disorder if not hormonal related then psychological related
PD panic disorder
orex/o appetite
para- abnormal
nymph/o women
hedon/o pleasure
klept/o steal
till/o pulling
voyeurism getting sexual pleasure and gratification from watching others engage in intimate behavior
cognitive therapy any treatment to help change attitudes, perceptions, patterns of thinking
ana- up, apart
de- lack of, removal
ECT electroconvulsive therapy, inducing convulsions to treat those unresponsive to drug therapy
GAF global assessment of functioning, numerical measure of overall mental health
delusion persistent belief in untruth
illusion inaccurate sense perception based on real external stimulus
opt/o, optic/o vision
audi/o, acous/o hearing
ocul/o, ophthalm eye
orbit/o protective bony socket eyes are encased in
bin- two
-ar pertaining to
supra- above
-al pertaining to
blephar/o, palpebr/o eyelid
canth/o canthus, corners of the eyes
conjunctiv/o conjuctiva, membrane that lines eyelids and covers the surface of eyes
lacrim/o tear glands
ophthalmology diagnosis and treatment of the eye
optometrist healthcare professional who treats vision
dacryocyst/o lacrimal sac, tear sac
kerat/o, corner/o cornea, transparent anterior portion of sclera
scler/o scleara, hard outer covering of the eye (white part)
ir/o, irid/o iris, pigmented muscle that allows light in eye
pupill/o, cor/o, core/o pupil, dark center of iris
phac/o, phak/o eye lens
viter/o aqueous and viterous humors, eye liquid
palpate examination with touch
retin/o retina, inner layer of eye made up of rods and cones
palpitate rapid heartbeat
dacryoaden/o lacrimal gland, tear gland
lacrim/o tear
uve/o uvea, middle highly vascular layer of the eye
dacry/o tear
vitre/o vitreous humor, jellylike substance between lens and retina
macul/o macula lutea, light focuses on on this retinal structure
ex/ophthalm/ia eyes bulging out of the head
-chalasis relaxation, slackening
-ptosis dropping, falling
ec- out
trop/o turning
-ion process of
xer/o dry
neo- new
nat/o born
esotropia one or both eyes turning inward
expotropia one or both eyes turning outward
entropion turning inward of the eyelid toward the eye
ectropin turning outward of the eyelid
ambly/o dull, dim
-opia vision condition
dipl/o double
phot/o light
strabismus aka squint lack of coordination between eyes
Astig, As, Ast astigmatism, malcurvature of the cornea leading to blurred vision
hyperopia farsight, cant see near
my/o to shut
myopia near sight, cant see far
presby- old age
corneal ulcer trauma to the outer covering of the eye
is/o equal
goni/o measurement of angles
cataract progressive loss of transparency of lens in eye
glauc/o gray, blueish green
nyctal/o night blindness, cant see well in dim light
miotics medicine to constrict pupils, can help treat glaucoma
opthalmics meds made specifically for the eye
scot/o darkness
scotoma blind spot
nyctalopia night blindness
topical anesthetics medicine used to numb the eyes
mydriatics medicine used to dilate eye
labyrinth/o inner ear
pinna top part of ear
auricle whole ear on outside
cerumin/o ear wax
tympan/o, myring/o tympanic membrane, ear drum
ossicul/o bones in middle of ear
salping/o fallopian tube or eustachian tube which is connection between the ears and throat that equalizes pressure
-lymph fluid
cochle/o cochlea, where hearing takes place
nystagmus involuntary back-and-forth eye movements
meat/o right at opening of ear
tinnitus ringing in ear
vertigo dizziness
choroid/o choroid, layer under the retina
melan/o dark, black
anacusis deaf
paracusis general term for abnormality of hearing
presbycusis age related hearing loss
conductive hearing loss sound waves dont go all the way where they need to go
sensorineural hearing loss sensory portion of nervous system isnt able to be sent
flurescein angiography procedure to confirm suspected retinal disease
slit lamp exam part of routine eye exam of layers of the eye
IOP intraocular pressure
tonometry measurement of intraocular pressure used to diagnosis glaucoma
VA test visual acuity, test for sharpness of vision
VF test visual field test, test to determine physical space visible
-rraphy suture
e- out
nucle/o nucelus
enucleation of the eye removal of entire eyeball
viscer/o organ
evisceration of the eye removal of contents of the eyeball, leaving the outer coat intact
exenteration of the eye removal of entire contents of the orbit
flap procedure procedure to cut cornea to access deeper structures
LASIK laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis, use of excimer laser to remove material under corneal flap
trabecul/o little beam
trabeculotomy incision of orbital network of eye to increase circulation and decrease pressure
coagulation to clot
scleral buckling reattachment of retina
Acc accommodation
ARMD-AMD age-related macular degeneration
EM, Em emmetropia, normal refractive condition of the eye (normal vision)
MY myopia, near sight, cant see far
Ophth opthamology
auricl/o ear
mastoid/o mastoid process, hard small projection that is behind the ear
staped/o stapes, tiny bone in middle ear that looks like a U
malleus one of the bones in middle ear
malleolus one of the process of the distal tibia and fibula
aural pertaining to the ear
otalgia aka otodynia earache
impacted cerumen blockage from earwax
otitis externa aka swimmers ear inflammation of outer ear
chol/e bile
steat/o fat
myring/o eardrum
-sclerosis hardening
-stenosis narrowing
Meniere disease chronic condition of the inner ear characterized by hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo
-acusis hearing
acoustic nueroma aka vestibular schwannoma benign tumor of eight carnial nerve
UNHS universal newborn hearing screening test
webner tuning fork test method of testing auditory and acuity
ASL american sign language
ENT ear, nose, throat specialist
Oto otology, study of the ear
TM tympanic membrane,
-crine to secrete
adren/o suprarenal gland, glands above the kidney
hypophys/o, pituitar/o pituitary gland, tiny gland behind optic nerve in skull
thalam/o thalamus, the middle part of the diencephalon through which sensory impulses pass
-us structure
ADH aka vasopressin antidiuretic horomone, stimulates kidneys to reabsorb water and return it to circulation
oxytocia rapid delivery
T4 aka thyroxine tetraiodthyronine, increases cell metabolism
cortisol glucocorticoids, responds to stress
ket/o, keton/o ketone, hormones that regulate glucose levels through metabolism of fat, carbs, proteins
gonad/o gonads, reproductive organ that makes sex hormones and reproductive cells-testes in the male
orex/o appetite
goiter enlargement of thyroid gland not due to tumor
hirsutism aka hypertrichosis abnormal hairiness
kal/i potassium
natr/o sodium
esthesi/o feeling
dips/o thirst
tetany continuous muscle spasms
acro- extremities
DI diabetes insipidus,to produce tremendous quantities of urine
GHD growth horome deficency
pan- all
Cushing disease excessive secretion of adrenal hormone cortisol causing obesity
DM diabetes mellitus, group of metabolic disorders characterized by high glucose levels
type 1 diabetes aka juvenile diabetes total lack of insulin production
type 2 diabetes deficient insulin production
phe/o dark
carcin/o epithelial cancer, neoplastic disease the natural course of which is fatal
malignant thymoma rare cancer of thymus gland
A1c test to monitor response to diabetes treatment with average blood glucose during 3 month span
FPG fasting plasma glucose, after a period of fasting blood is drawn
OGTT oral glucose tolerance test
TFTs thyroid function test, blood test to see how effective thyroid gland is
UA urinalysis
tom/o slice
onc/o tumor
-genesis production, origin
mut/a change
-tion process of
apo- away from
-plasia condition of formation
meta- beyond, change
-stasis controlling, stopping
blast/o, -blast embryonic
ecto- outer
-al pertaining to
meso- middle
-sarcoma connective tissue cancer
extra- outside
nod/o node, small mass of tissue
terat/o deformity
-carcinoma cancer of epithelial (type of tissue) origin
sarc/o flesh
sacr/o sacrum, large heavy bone at the base of the spine
BMT bone marrow transplant
BSE breast self-examination
BTA bladder tumor antigen
bx biopsy, removal of a sample of tissue to be examined
CA cancer
CNS central nervous system
GI gastrointestinal
MS musculoskeletal, multiple sclerosis, mithral stenosis
hGH human growth hormone
-lalia condition of babbling
tricho/tillo/mania condition of madness to constantly pull hair out
ambul/o walking
WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, measures intelligence with IQ test
TAT Thematic Apperception Test, provides info about needs, fantasies, interpersonal relationships
PET scan positron emission tomography scan, imaging of metabolic activity in brain using nuclear meds
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, measures personality characteristics
Rorschach examines integration of emotional and intellectual factors
Bender Gestalt test of visuomotor and spatial tasks
MR mental retardation
ADHD attnetion-defecit/hyperactivity disorder
PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, extended emotional response to traumatic experience
hallucination unreal sensory perception with no external stimulus
depression dysphoric mood with decrease of activity such as difficulty eating, sleeping, working
stupor lowered level of consciousness
dementia progressive organic disorder causes lack of orientation, stupor, cognitive function
cognitive function ability to comprehend
akathisia relentless ability to sit still
blunt affect reduced range of motions
labile affect widely changeable emotional state
libido normal psychological impulse drive
catatonia psychologically induced immobility
defense mechanisms unconscious psychological coping in the face of stress or threat such as denial and projection
dependance syndrome difficulty in controlling use of drugs
schizophrenia distortions of thinking and perception with intact intellectual capacity
another term for borderline schizophrenia schizotypal disorder
acute transient psychotic disorder acute onset of symptoms like delusions, hallucinations, perceptual disturbances
another term for mood disorders affective disorders
two extremes of behavior characterizing bipolar affective disorder condition of madness, depression
example of parasomnia (condition of abnormal sleep) somnambulism (sleep walking), sleep terrors
dysthymia mild chronic depression that lasts for years but not severe enough for depression diagnosis
3 examples of healthcare term for fear disorder and what they are acrophobia (fear of heights), agoraphobia (fear of crowds), anthropophobia (fear of scrutiny)
dissociative identity disorder development of multiple personalities resulting from severe stress
personality disorders group of disorders consisting of long standing, inflexible, dysfunctional behavior
mild retardation mental retardation with IQ range of 50 to 69
conduct disorder persistent aggressive and defiant behaviors
Tourette syndrome involuntary behaviors that include vocalization and repetitive movements
five axes of DSM-IV-TR multiaxial evaluation clinical disorders, MR and personality disorders, general medical conditions, psychosocial environmental problems, GAF
ECT electroconvulsive therapy, treatment for severe mental illness with controlled amount of electricity
affective disorders any group of psychiatric disorders
behavioral therapy attempt at substituting new responses to given stimulus
detoxification is initial step in treating what substance abuse
light therapy is used to treat what disorder seasonal affective disorder
dysthymic mood mild chronic depression that lasts for years but not severe enough for depression diagnosis
papill/o optic disk
a/chromat/opsia vision condition of without color, color blind
hemi/an/opsia vision condition of loss of half of vision field
opt/ic nuer/itis pertaining to inflammation of the optic nerve resulting in blindness
presby/opia lack of vision due to old age
ophthalmoscopy visual exam of interior of eye
gonioscopy visualization of angle of anterior chamber
Amsler grid test to measure central vision
Schirmer test test to determine amount of tear production
fluorescein staining exam of abnormalities of cornea
fluorescein angiography use of injected dye to record suspected retinal disease
diopters measurement units used to determine refraction errors
retinal photocoagulation destruction of retinal lesions with light
goniotomy incision of the Schlemn canal to correct glaucoma
Schlemn canal a circular canal in the eye that drains aqueous humor
corneal incision procedure any keratotomy procedure to correct a refractive error
intraocular lenses implantable contact lens
corneal transplant aka keratoplasty damaged cornea is replaced by the cornea from the eye of a human cadaver
trabeculo/tomy incision into orbital network of eye using laser beam
dacryocysto/rhino/stomy new opening between the tear sacs and nose
PRK photo refractive keratectomy
-algia pain
microtia condition of small ears
audiometer instrument to measure hearing
Weber tuning fork test test of auditory acuity
tympanogramty record of function of eardrum
otoscope instrument to visually examine the ears
Rinne tuning fork test test to distinguish between conductive and sensorineural hearing loss
speech audiometry measurement of ability to hear and understand speech
myringotomy incision of eardrum
otoplasty surgical reconstruction of the external ear
cochlear implant device implanted in inner ear to stimulate hearing
stapedectomy excision of ossicle that strikes the oval window
OM otitis media, infection of the middle ear
TM tympanic membrane, eardrum
OAE otoacoustic emission, measures an acoustic response that is produced by the inner ear
another term for stye hordeolum, lump on the eyelid
epiphora overflow of tears
diabetic retinopathy disease of retina caused by diabetes
retinoblastoma inherited malignant tumor of the eye present at birth
anisocoria condition of unequally sized pupils
nystagmus involuntary back-and-forth movement of the eye
hyphema blood toward the front of the eye, hemorrhage within the eye
retinitis pigmentosa hereditary disease marked by nyctalopia and progressive loss of visual field
glaucoma group of disorders characterized by abnormal intraocular pressure
otosclerosis development of bone around the oval window resulting in an ankylosis of the stapes
ankyl/ose of high frequency stiffening
macrotia abnormally large auricles
cholesteatoma cystic mass composed of epithelial cells and cholesterol
otorrhea discharge from auditory canal
opthalmic sonography use of high-frequency sound waves to image the interior of the eye
opthalmoscopy visual examination of interior of the eye with ophthalmoscope
auditory brainstorm response placement of electrodes on babies to measure their response to sound
intracapsular lens extraction removal of entire lens and its capsule
tympanostomy opening of the eardrum to insert tubes
lubricants medicine that keeps the eyes moist
cycloplegics medicine that paralyzes the ciliary muscles
what disorder is treated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotics, anticholinergics, beta-blockers, alpha-agonists glaucoma
ceruminolytic medicine used to dissolve earwax
otics type of drug applied directly to ear
antibiotics medicine to reduce infection
PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, disease of the retinas increasing rapidly in diabetics
ABR auditory brain response, hearing test using response from brain
Snellen test measures visual acuity
ED emergency department
photophobia sensitivity to light
conjuctivitis aka pinkeye inflammation of lining of white part of eye and underside of the eyelid (conjunctiva)
audiologist hearing specialist
another name for pituitary gland hypophysis, this gland is referred to as master gland bc of its control over endocrine glands
hypothalamus controls pituitary gland
thyroid gland responsible for regulation of body's metabolism and controls amount of calcium deposited into bone
adrenal glands are named for what their location above the kidneys
inner part of the adrenal gland adrenal medulla
outer part of adrenal gland adrenal cortex
the endocrine function of the pancreas regulates what glucose in blood through its hormones glucagon and insulin
what is produced if glucose cannot pass out of the bloodstream into the cells to be metabolized fatty acids and ketones
where is the thymus gland located in the mediastinum above the heart
what is the thymus gland responsible for stimulating key cells in the immune response
where is the pineal gland located in the center of the brain
what is the function of the pineal gland functioning to secrete the hormone mealatin, thought to be responsible for sleep
aden/o gland
lob/o lobe
thyr/o thyroid gland, gland responsible for regulating metabolism
calc/o calcium
parathyroid/o parathyroid, glands regulating calcium in the blood
ren/o kidney
cortic/o cortex
medull/o medulla, middle of
pancreat/o pancreas, gland with exocrine and endocrine functions
gluc/o glucose, sugar
endo- within
exo- outside
-logy the study of
retro- backward
phag/o appetite
exophthalmia protrusion of eyeballs from orbits
ketoacidosis excessive quantity of ketone acids in blood
sonography procedure using high-frequency sound waves used to image the pancreas, adrenals, thyroid
MRI magnetic resonance imaging, detailed images of soft tissues, such as pituitary, pancreas, hypothalamus
how can parathyroid dysfunction be detected through blood test for parathyroid hormone or test for total calcium
urine glucose test that can be used to screen for diabetes mellitus
glucometer way to measure blood sugar
Ca calcium
K potassium
Na sodium
OT oxytocin
hypothyroidism condition of under active thyroid gland
acromegaly enlargement of extremities
renal calculi kidney stones
Synthyroid thyroid hormone
-oma tumor
malignant tumors that are considered to be cancerous
carcinoma the most common type of malignant cancer
myeloma cancer cells that derive from plasma cells in the bone marrow
healthy cells are what well differentiated
grading determination of the edge of dedifferentiation of cancer cells
staging system of determining how far a cancer has spread from its original site
primary site site where cancer originates
pack years the number of packs of cigs smoked per day X the number of years of smoking
history section of a patient's medical record information regarding previous diet, alcohol use, family members with cancer
tumor markers levels of biochemical substances present in the blood that may indicate neoplastic activity
brachytherapy treatment with radioactive beads near or inside the cancer
lymph node mapping determination of the spread of the primary tumor through the lymph nodes
sentinel node first node in which lymphatic drainage occurs
en bloc resection removal of tumor and lymph nodes
margins borders of normal tissue surrounding the cancer
immunotherapy use of the body's own defense system to attack cancer cells
CAM complementary and alternative medicine, prayer & massage & exercise & mind-body techniques
3DCRT three-dimensional targeted radiation treatment on tumors without damaging surrounding tissue
G grade
FOBT fecal occult blood test
CTR certified tumor register
TNM tumor-nodes-metastases
SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography
metastases transfer of disease
PSA prostate-specific antigen, tumor marker used to detect prostate cancer
TA-90 tumor marker used to detect the spread of malignant melanoma
AFP alpha-fetaprotein, tumor marker with increased levels which indicate liver or testicular cancer
BTA bladder tumor antigen, tumor marker for bladder cancer
NSE neuron-specific enolase, tumor marker used to measure stage of response to treatment of small cell cancer and neuroblastoma
B2M beta-2 microglobulin, levels of this tumor marker are elevated in multiple myeloma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CA 15-3 tumor marker used to determine the stage of breast cancer
CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, tumor marker that measures response to treatment in colorectal cancer
CA27-29 useful test for recurrences of breast cancer
CA19-9 this tumor marker has elevated levels in the presence of stomach, colorectal, pancreatic cancer
CA125 ovarian cancer can be detected and managed by this tumor marker
dx diagnosis
BSE breast self-examination
T1 tumor
NO nodes
MO metastases, transfer of disease
mets metastases, transfer of disease
seminoma testicular cancer
multiple myeloma multiple tumors in the bone marrow
adenocarcinomas cancer of gland tissue
grade 1 - grade 5 cancer least to deadliest cancer
well differentiated cells that retain most of intended function
metastatic rapid transfer of disease
lumpectomy removal of tumor only
Pap smear test for vaginal and cervical cancer
severe dysplasia severe abnormal formation
radiotherapy treatment with radiation
chemotherapy treatment with chemical agents
crin/o endocrine glands, make hormones
the exocrine function of the pancreas regulates what digestive juices
-onin hormone
paresthesia partial feeling
-sone steroid
natural body operates on what physics (shape) and chemistry
tissue cells come together to form tissue
meta- change
cachexia general ill health and malnutrition
-penia deficiency of
thrombocyt platelets
are all neoplasms cancerous no
chemical messengers used by the endocrine system to regulate body functions hormones
Created by: brookelily