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Christianity :)

exam revision

QuestionAnswer
name where Christian was first used Antioch
year Jesus was crucified 31AD
first Christian martyr Stephen
apostle to the gentiles Paul
2 apostles martyred in Rome Peter and Paul
longest living apostle and his books John---gospel of John, 3 letters of John, Revelation
organisational structure of early church bishops, elders, deacons Founded by apostles 'a person who was sent' they set up elders, they were assisted by deacons who carried out duties, and they later appointed bishops.
meaning of canon and summary of NT fixed body of sacred writings; gospels, Luke's Acts, 21 letters and Revelation
date of recognition of NT canon 400CE
main reason for roman hatred of Christians Christians refused to offer incense to Nero/emperor = disloyal
3e.g. of Roman emperors who severely persecuted Christians Decius, valerian, Diocletian
constantine 312AD-made Christianity a religion licitia 325AD-convened the church council of Nicea (Roman emperor 4C attributed his victory to Christian God)
excommunication religious censure used to deprive, restrict or limit membership in a religious community/church
Gnosticism belief that physical world is evil and corrupt, salvation comes through secret knowledge (gnosis means knowledge). Jesus was evil because he had a physical form -human.
Trinity Tertullian - God is of 1 divine substance but 3 individuals
Arianism Arius denied divinity of Jesus as he was created by God
papacy office or authority of pope
donation of Constantine a forged statement authorized by Constantine, all Christian leaders to be subjected to the bishop of Rome.
holy roman empire German empire in central europe. ruled by holy emperor, considered to be the secular head of Christianity and protector and partner of the bishop of Rome.
crusades Religious wars conducted by Western Christians in order to recover the holy land from Muslims. 11-13C
Great Western Schism A time when two popes claimed supreme authority (rome+France), a third pope (Pisa) came in near the end and he was elected, 1388 - 1417.
Renaissance rebirth when people cultivated the study of the classical era.
protestants members of Churches founded by the reformers of the sixtieth century. - separate from Catholic church
dioceses a district under the pastoral care of a Bishop
thirty years war 1618-1648 in Germany A religious war fought between Protestants and Catholics, because the protestant movement grew in Europe.resulted in substantial decline of RC church
Counter-Reformation and the Council of Trent ecumenical council of RC church. trent italy. redefined church doctrine and strengthened authority of papacy. dealt with protestant reformation.
congregation of the propagation of the faith Pope Gregory XV in 1622 set up a new department in Rome to oversee the spread of Catholicism in foreign lands.
papal infallibility doctrine that pope is incapable of error in pronouncing dogma.
purgatory a state of punishment and purification after death for those not completely alienating God.
predestination doctrine is some Christian theology, some humans have been chosen for salvation and others set aside for damnation.
secularisation a tendency of modern society to lessen the influence of religion in worldly affairs. - lack of interest in religious practices/ideas
RC biblical passage used to justify teach on apostolic authority Matt 16:18
Matt 16:18 and i tell you that you are peter, and on this rock i will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it.
true aim of Popes in MA church + bishops to be the supreme power in religious and secular matters
incident with henry IV demonstrated the growing power of papacy in 11C pope made the kind stand barefoot in the snow for 3 days before he let him see him.
7 sacraments baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, matrimony, ordination, last anointing,
waldensians + RC church get rid of them? group of christians in french/italian alps during MA. practice their religion according to conscience and work of God. rejected authority of pope.
protestant reformation early 1500s . reform movement led by monk Martin Luther. aim to challenge and reform the RC church
anglican church -church of england Henry VIII wanted to remarry, he asked the pope to declare the marriage invalid, when the Pope refused, Henry in 1534 made himself the supreme head of the Church of England.
john and charles wesley 2 famous revivalists of 18C - john preacher, charles-hymn writer ----Methodist denomination formed under their influence.
3 major challenges to protestantism in 19-20C 1)science = conflicted against bible teaching (creation/miracles) 2) philosophy =no need for God 3) historical studies = encouraged reinterpretations of Christian scriptures
2 main groups of protestantism 1)liberal 2)conservative
eastern orthodox church has religious/political control Greece and Cyprus
main problem with ecumenical movement effort to find unity can easily result in compromising of biblical truths
western world must rethink traditional christian views 1)feminism 2)evolution 3) ecology
why is large no of non christian sources about jesus so important? eliminates charge of bias and gives greater credibility to accuracy of bible
what is significant that gospels record women as first witnesses to jesus ressurection woman were not considered reliable witnesses at the time and no Jewish writer would invent such a claim
why were jews so offended that jesus claimed to forgive sins? only God can forgive sin, so the realised Jesus claimed to be God.
3 reasons why christianity spread so quickly 1) relative peace and ease of movement in roman empire 2)characteristic of zeal of early christians 3) help of God.
indulgences certificates of salvation sold by RC in MA
kingdom of God God's rule internally atm "kingdom of Grace" and externally kingdom of glory to come.
pope head of RD church/bishop of Rome
Grace Gods unmerited and unearned favour to sinners
2 timothy 3:16 scriptures are not merely human books but all scripture inspired by God
time span of writing of the bible 1600 years
inerrant incapable of being wrong
2 main characteristic of the church holiness-character of God in ppl +church universality-anyone from any nation can be apart of God's church
koinonia Greek word for fellowship - God/ppl
origin of christmas festival in 4C of the sun god made into official day of Christ's birth.God was true sun. done to accommodate pagans into christian church after constantine made christianity official religion of empire.
eschatology last things - associated with end of world. death judgement + final destiny of soul and humankind.
2 rites of passage + special rite of passage of pilgrimage to holy site. Baptism- is becoming a member of the family of God and community of faith. Marriage - is the ceremony marking the passing from being single to married. pilgrimage to lourdes for healing.
basis of christian ethics 1) 10 commandments 2) sermon on the mount. matt5-7
3 christian theologians martin luther, john Knox, augustine
institutes of the Christian religion john Calvin
2 ways of holiness normal: prayer, worship, special: monasticism or mysticism-oneness with God
3 christian women mother theresa, elizabeth fry, mary-mother of Jesus
recent rise in protestant churches idea of femaleness idea of goddess, mainly promoted by feminists who insist on seeing God as not just male or entirely female.
3 reasons why religion is regarded in such poor light. 1) christians claim to be only true way-antagonizes non believers, 2) nonbelievers are oppressed to religious beliefs 3) cosmic conflict between the devil and God
Philippians 4:8 Finally, brothers and sisters, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable if anything is excellent or praiseworthy think about such things.
James 1:21 Therefore, get rid of all moral filth and the evil that is so prevalent and humbly accept the word planted in you, which can save you.
india hinduism
indonesia islam
china non religious/buddist
america protestant
UK protestant
africa islam/protestant/traditional practices
russia orthodox/non religious
canada RC
largest jewish pop USA then israel
largest hindu india
largest christian pop USA
muslim pop pakistan
buddhism china
what dates of the great western schism 1388-1417AD
when was the 30 years war fought? 1618-1648
Created by: 96
 

 



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