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DSST World Religions

Allah. The one God, in Islam.
angel. In Islamic traditions, an invisible servant of God. Gabriel is said to have served as a messenger between Allah and Mohammed to bring him the visions and the Koran
barakah. In Islamic mysticism, the spiritual wisdom and blessing transmitted from master to pupil.
caliph. In Sunni Islam, the successor to the Prophet.
dervish. A Sufi ascetic, in the Muslim tradition.
dhimmi. A person of a non-Muslim religion whose right to practice that religion is protected within an Islamic society.
Fatiha The first sura of the Qur'an.
hadith In Islam, a traditional report about a reputed saying or action of the Prophet Muhammad.
hajj The holy pilgrimage to Mecca, for Muslims.
hijab The veiling of women for the sake of modesty in Islam.
hijrah Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina.
ijtihad. In Islam, reasoned interpretation of sacred law by a qualified scholar.
Imam. In Shi'ism, the title for the person carrying the initiatic tradition of the Prophetic Light.
imam. A leader of Muslim prayer.
infidel. The Muslim term for "nonbeliever," which each tradition often applies to the other.
Islamist. A person seeking to establish Islamic states in which the rule of God is supreme.
jinn. Spiritual creatures in pre-Islamic Arabia. Some could be friendly; others were hostile and demonic. "Genies"
kufr. In Islam, the sin of atheism, of ingratitude to God.
Muezzin In Islam, one who calls the people to prayer from a high place.
mujahid. In Islam, a selfless fighter in the path of Allah
Shari'ah. The divine law, in Islam.
Sheikh In Sufism, a spiritual master
Shi'ite. The minority branch of Islam, which feels that Muhammad's legitimate successors were 'Ali and a series of Imams; a follower of this branch.
shirk. The sin of believing in any divinity except the one God, in Islam.
Sufism. The mystical and ascetic path in Islam.
Sunnah. The behavior of the Prophet Muhammad, used as a model in Islamic law.
Sunni. A follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community.
sura. A chapter of the Qur’an.
tariqa. In Islam, an esoteric Sufi order.
ulama. The influential leaders in traditional Muslim society, including spiritual leaders, imams, teachers, state scribes, market inspectors, and judges.
ummah. The Muslim community.
zakat. Spiritual tithing in Islam.
Five Pillars of Islam The principal duties every Muslim must carry out: the profession of faith in the one God, daily prayer, charitable giving, fasting during Ramadan, and pilgrimage to Mecca.
jihad a holy war in defense of Islam and the personal struggle within oneself to lead a godly life
Night Journey the Prophet Muhammad’s supernatural journey across the sky from Mecca to Jerusalem from where he ascended into heaven and into the presence of Allah.
Ramadan The Islamic holy month during which the Prophet Muhammad received God’s revelation. Muslims do not eat or drink between sunrise and sunset.
fakir literally “poor man”; member of a Muslim monastic order such as Sufism
‘Id al-Adha Muslim feast of sacrifice
‘Id al-Fitr Muslim feast of fast breaking. Celebrates a return to normal life after the prolonged fast of Ramadan.
Kaaba enclosure surrounding the black stone in Mecca; this stone became an object of veneration by pilgrims in pre-Islamic Arabia
Moghul Empire Muslim rule of portions of India between the 16th and 18th centuries AD.
Muslim Literally, “submitter” (one who submits to the will of God); one becomes Muslim by utterance of the Shahadah: “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.”
Shahadah “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger.” Saying this in Arabic with the intent of becoming a Moslem immediately makes a person a member of the Umma
Qur’an Literally, “reading” or “recitation”; Muslim scripture.
Abraham Called Ibrahim in Arabic, considered to be the first Moslem, that is, the first person to submit himself to Allah. He was also prophet. According to moslem belief, he and his son Ismail (i.e., Ishmael) built the Kaba and established the practice of Hajj.
Abu Bakr The first of the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, Abu Bakr was an early believer and follower of Mohammed who became a close advisor to him. he became the first successor to Mohammed following Mohammed's death.
Adhan The call to prayer, which traditionally the muezzin calls from a mosque's minaret five times a day. The muezzin faces Mecca when he calls Muslims to prayer.
Ali After Mohammed's death, the first major split among Moslems occured because he thought the caliphate should have gone to him since he was Mohammed's closest male relative. After his murder in 660, his followers split and became known as Shiites.
Almsgiving one of the Five Pillars of Islam, by which Islam strives for an economic justice. It is an obligatory "poor tax" between 2-10%. It purifies the giver and the remainder of his wealth. It is envisioned as a loan to Allah, who will repay it double.
Ayatollah A Shiite who is learned in Sharia, Koran, and the Hadith, and who is known for their piety. This person is considered by his followers as the most learned person of his time period, which gives him the authority to make independent judgments.
Caliph the title used by the people who took over the leadership of the Umma after the death of Mohammed. they are not the spiritual leader of the community nor are they a prophet like Mohammed.
People of the Book Christians & Jews
David Islam views this Biblical king as a prophet.
Dome of the Rock the shrine in Jerusalem which makes Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam. It is set over an outcropping of bedrock on which the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple rested. It is from here that Mohammed rose into heaven on his Night Journey.
Four Rightly Guided Caliphs These are Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. They are the first four leaders of Islam after the death of Mohammed. They took the title "caliph" to make it clear that they were not a prophet like Mohammed.
Friday Mosque On Friday, Moslems are expected to gather in community prayer at noon. This is usually done in this large, centrally located mosque
Imam (1) In Sunni Islam, the leader of worship in a mosque. (2) In Shiite Islam, a spiritual leader whose authority comes from Mohammed through his son-in-law Ali.
Ishmael The son of Abraham, He is a prophet, and assisted Abraham in building the Kaba. He is seen as the most important of Abraham's two sons; in the story about Abraham almost sacrificing his son, Islam identifies the son as Ishmael, not Isaac.
Islam The religion which focuses on the human submission to Allah. The term itself derives from two different roots, one which means "submission" and the other which means "peace."
Jerusalem The third most holy city in Islam. Mohammed's night visit to heaven began from the ruined Temple Mount. In 691, Moslems built the Dome of the Rock over that specific location.
Jesus considered an important prophet who came to deliver Allah's message to humanity. Unfortunately, that message was not transmitted accurately and, in Moslem eyes, resulted in the false notion that He was more than a prophet.
Kaba It is in the center of a large mosque in Hajj and serves as the center of the Moslem world and all Moslems pray towards it, where ever they may be in the world.
Koran According to Moslem belief, Allah composed it and had his angel Gabriel transmit it. the direct words of Allah, it provides God's final and definitive revelation.
Mecca This is the town in the Hejaz where Mohammed was born. the most holy site in Islam (followed by Medina and Jerusalem) and the destination of the Hajj.
Medina Mohammed governed this town until his death in 632. Since Mohammed was buried here, it is considered the second most holy city in Islam, after Mecca.
Minaret a tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin issues the call to prayer. Although the tower can be any shape, it is typically round.
Mohammed born in Mecca in 570 CE. In 610, he sought out and began to have visions from Allah. the last of a long line of prophets of Allah and has been given the title of the Seal of the Prophets.
Moslem, Muslim A person who practices Islam.
Mullah In Sunni Islam, a scholar who is learned in the Sharia.
Prophets Adam, Abraham, Ishmael, David, and Jesus who delivered Allah's message, but it was corrupted or shortened. This is why Mohammed is considered the Seal of the Prophets, because he brought the complete, final, and uncorrupted message of Allah to humanity.
Seal of the Prophets Mohammed is the final prophet-- in the line of Islamic prophets that goes back through Jesus, David, and Moses to Adam. The teachings Allah gave through him--the Koran-- are the final revelation to humanity.
Sura The Arabic term for a chapter in the Koran.
Zakat Almsgiving.
Created by: pinetreeacademy