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COMM 469Y Final

What is theodicy? How does it help people face suffering? Anomic experiences (suffering, evil, pain,death etc) that tie in with social nomos (the beliefs, assumptions and meanings that ground a society);
How does theodicy function? Integrates anomy (disorder, suffering etc) into social experience, gives meaning to suffering but no resolution, explains social inequalities.
What are key components of theodicy? Masochism: Self-sacrifice for a greater cause and self-surrender to discomfort or anguish. EX: NYPD, Ghandi. Mysticism: Transcending from the profane/mundane to the sacred; movement to a greater truth or better reality.
How are suffering and sacrifice related to civil religion? The extents that we’re willing to give up liberties or opportunities for the greater good and to keep us safe. EX: Selective Service.
What is civil religion? A collective beliefs, symbols, and rituals with represetenatation of sacred and profane in everyday nomos.
How do Condit and Jamieson orient to epideictic rhetoric in times of crisis? Account for responsibility of action and response, give meaning to the event within American values. Functional not just ceremonial. Narratives are so important as proof of triumph.
Condit Don't be ambiguous, define the event, display eloquence/leadership, shaping/sharing of community.
Jamieson Sustains community, rehearses values, recalls important principles/restate shared ideals, rededicates audience of ideals.
What makes crisis/war rhetoric a hybrid rhetorical genre? It is both deliberative and epideictic. Both of these things must come to together for speeches to be effective. The purpose is to acknowledge the present moment and justify the course of action next.
What are the key strategies of deliberative dimensions? They show the plan of action and discuss the future acts that will be taken.
What are the key strategies of epideictic rhetoric? Praises or blames through amplification (honoring heroes) and narrative (testimonies). Responds to the crisis and reaffirms the community will survive.
What are audience’s key needs in moments of national crisis? Deliberative: Call for action (sacrifice), cvic duty, will we recover. Epideictic: What happened? Why us? How do we survive and prevent this?
What were the nation’s needs following the September 11th, 2001 attacks? How did he attend to the nation’s needs? Needs: Communal understanding, meaning leadership, emotional and pragmatic response. Bush: Affirmed national identity, rehearsed national values, honored sacrifice.
What rhetorical obstacles did President Bush face in his Address to Joint Session of Congress on 9/20/2001? What rhetorical strategies did President Bush use in his response to the terrorist attacks on 9/11/2001? Helps us to see cost isn’t that high because this will bring us back to normal life, have a clear plan (preparing for the obstacle of cost).
What is 17th century Baconian? A Theistic worldview. Science as extension of studying Creation/Revelation. Bible = God's word. Nature = God's work
What is 19th century Positivists? A Materialist worldview. No Knowledge outside of science. Hypothesis, observation, verification. Severed science from authority of all institutions, autonomous.
What is the “Age of Reason?” Contrast age of faith. Reason leads to moral/social progress. Observable/testable. Morality no longer dependent on sacred revelation.
How did science influence modern understanding about “knowledge?” Real knowledge distinguished between "opinion/faith". Real knowledge must be objective, something you can test, measure, see and falsify. Scientific method reveals truth.
What is Scientism? Science is the basis of everything; “The scientific life is the only life”. It explains how the world works, syncretism of naturalistic ideology + religious meanings. Mystery -> benevolent motives -> great destiny.
Examples of Scientism in Day the Earth Stood Still? When the woman is holding her rosary beads because she is reaching to religion; people believed science is the answer including world peace.
What are popular misconceptions of science? Science is unbiased, apolitical, independent, leads to technological/social progress, questions ethics/morality, always progressive, neutral.
What is empirical science? Science that can be measured by numbers.
What makes science social? Science is a culture, formed by communication, has its own norms, it is influenced by human interests.
What is secularization? Delinking of the sacred with the human world. Descriptive type: Separation of church and state in the US. Evaluative type: Common way to view it as either liberating or removing God.
What are objective and subjective dimensions of secularization? Objective - Social structure, removal of institutions from religions influence. schools, courts. Subjective - Secularization of consciousness. Less about norms, deals with individual and personal consciousness.
How were non-western cultures secularized? Colonialism , imperialism and materialist ideologies (anti-sacredness).
In what ways is U.S. culture secularized and/or not? Secularized through separation between Church and state. Not secularized is because we still base laws on religion.
What are the 3 clusters of rhetoric Klumpp & Reid refer to? Burkean - The use of language as symbolic meanings Quinntillian - Emphasis on eloquence and character Aristotelian - Focuses on technique for effective communication.
What are the elements of the rhetorical situation? Exigence: The change. Audience: Ability to act/interest. Constraints: Opportunities/limitations. Purpose: Achievable goal.
What are the elements of descriptive analysis? Purpose: Theme. Audience: Target. Persona: Character of the speaker. Tone: What emotion is being communicated? Structure Supporting Materials: History/stats. Strategies: Metaphor, logos, ethos.
What is religion according Berger and Durkheim? Berger: Cosmos: the universe; encompasses all nature, human experience, material reality. Durkheim: The sacred and the profane, in the community, through rituals and beliefs.
How does Lessl define religious communication? “Religious speech represents a specialized kind of symbolic transformation that may occur in any sector of the public marketplace.” Denotative & connotative meanings.
What are Metaphors? Suggest new possibilities for meaning, underlines calls for moral action, induce judgment, compel responsive action. Language as symbols.
What are the major metaphoric archetypes? High/Low: (Greater/lesser, Moral/baseness). Light/Dark: (Sight/blind, Warm/cold, Midnight/dawn). Disease/Remedy: (Threat/assurance). Inevitability/Determinism: (Dark gives way to light).
What are myths? Mythical behavior? How do myths work? Teach how to live, explain identity, explain destiny. Connection between ordinary & grand. Transcendence = move from ordinary to greater. Ritual = Action/Practices.
What is society? Why do human beings need society? How does society provide structure? An ongoing process, not static. Society gives us organization, community, identity, ways of living.
What role/functions does religion serve in constructing society/social reality? Provides stability, meaning, reason to persevere, sacred & profane.
Anomy Unable to find meaning in society.
Religion A patterns of beliefs and social practices relative to things sacred and profane.
What are the ways social stability is typically maintained, according to Berger? The use of identity/roles (birth/family), language (nomos/naming, gender & gender meaning), and rules (socialization, attitudes, values, and habits).
What are the different dimensions of rhetorical obstacles that arise from audience, subject, rhetor’s ethos? Audience - inertia or resistance, interest Subject - Cultural history, Complexity, Cost. Rhetor's Ethos - Reputation, identification, social power, character, goodwill.
How do different theorists orient to civil religion/piety? Bellah? Hart & Pauley? Carolyn Marvin? Hart & Pauley - Argue about tension in American social makeup relationship the US has with religion is symbolic. Carolyn Marvin - Challenge between civil and unofficial religion. Death punishment in religion.
What is American civil religion? Bellah - A collection of beliefs, symbols and rituals with respect to sacred things and institutionalized in a collectivity.
What religio-symbolic roles are associated with the American president? Ethos - character.
Inertia A tendency to do nothing or to remain unchanged: "bureaucratic inertia". A property of matter by which it continues in its existing state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line.
Externalization Humans have to create their own worlds, and they do this by digging into their own thoughts, ideas, dreams, inspiration.
Internalization Understanding self/others in terms of culture, membership, self-value, autonomy (self-governance).
The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951) Klaatu/Mr. Carpenter" - Alien. Helen Benson a World War II widow, and her son Bobby. Even with their advanced technology, they cannot truly overcome death, that power being reserved for the "Almighty Spirit.
Created by: SDUMD13


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