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Exercise 42

Anatomy of the Reproductive System

the purpose of the reproductive system is to perpetuate the species
the gonads produce the germ cells, the testes & ovaries
testes primary reproductive organ of the male
what are the exocrine & endocrine function of the male gonads exocrine, sperm production ; endocrine testosterone production
scrotum paired testes; temp is 94F or 34C; lower than body tem b.c producing viable sperm
what are the accessory structures forming the duct system? epididymis, ductus deferens, the ejaculatory duct & the urethra
epididymis is an elongated structure runnign up the posterolateral aspect of the testis & capping its uperior aspect; forms the first portion of the duct system & provides a site for immature sperm entering it from the testis to complete their maturation process
ductus deferens/vas deferns sperm duct; arches superiorly from the epididymis, passes through the inguinal canal into the pelvic cavity, courses over the superior aspect of the urinary bladder
vasectomy a small incision made in each side of the scrotum & each ductus deferens is cut through or cauterized (sperm is still produced bu they can no longer reach the body exterior causes sterilization)
accessory glands include prostate gland, paired seminal vesicles & the bulbourethral glands
seminal fluid is the liquid medium in which sperm leave the body
seminal vesicles produce about 60% of seminal fluid, lie at the posterior wall of the urinary bladder close to the terminus of the ductus deferens
what do they produce viscous alkaline secretion containing fructose & other substances that nurish the sperm passing through the tract or promote the fertilizating sperm passing throught the tract or promote the fertilizing capability of sperm in some way
prostate gland encircles the urethra just inferior tot he bladder; secretes a milky fluid into the urethra which activates sperm
bulbourethral glands produce a thick, clear, alkaline mucus that drains intot he membranous urethra; acts to wash residual urine out of the urethra when ejaculation occurs
the alkalinity of seminal fluid also ___ buffers the sperm against the acidity of the female reproductive tract
corpora cavernosa paired dorsal cylinders
corpus spongiousum single ventral; surrounds the penile urethra
seminiferous tubules the sperm-forming factories
interstitial cells produce testosterone; lies between the seminiferous tubules
name the exocrine & endocrine product of the ovaries exocrine (eggs or oval) endocrine (estrogens & progesterone)
ectopic pregnancy when the fertilized egg is implanted in a uterine tube or on the abdominal viscera
what is it exactly that sloughs off periodically (about every 28 days) superficial stratum functionalis or functional layer region of the endometrium (thick mucosal lining of the uterus)
this sloughing-off process is known as menstruation/menses
a corpus luteum is the ruptured follicle that is converted toa second type of endocrine gland ; it secretes progesterone (& some estrogens)
the ductus deferens is enclosed along w. blood vessels & nerves in a connective tissue sheath called the ___ spermatic cord
the terminus of the ductus deferens enlarges to form the rgion called the ___ (where does it go) amppulla; it empties into the ejaculatory duct
during ejaculation what's going on? contraction of the ejaculatory duct propels the sperm through the prostate gland to the prostatic urethra wich in turn empties into the membranous urethra & then into the spongy (penile) urethra, which runs through the length of the penis to the body exte
the penis is part of the external genitalia of the male along w. the scrotal sac, is the copulatory organ of the male
what is it desigined to do? deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract,
what does it consits of a shaft, which terminates in an enlarged tip, the glans penis
what is prepuce or foreskin the skin coveringthe penis is loosely applied, & it reflects downward to form a circular fold of skin; its around the proximal end of the glans
corpora cavernosa the paired dorsal cylinders
corpus spongiosum single ventral; surrounds the penile urethra
rete testis when the seminiferous tubules of each lobe converge to empty the sperm into another set of tubules; located at the mediastinum of the testis
sperm traveling through the rete testis then enter the epididymis, located onthe exterior aspect of the testis
external genitalia (vulva) consists of what the mons pubis, the labia majora & minora, the clitoris, the urethral & vaginal orifices, the hymen & the greater vestibular glands
the mons pubis is what it is rounded fatty eminence overlying the pubic symphysis
the labia majora runs inferiorly & posteriorly from the mons pubis; it is 2 elongated, pigmented, hair-covered skin folds which are homologous tot he scrotum of the male
the labia minora enclose 2 smaller hair-free folds
the labia minor in turn, enclose a region called the __ (what does it contain) vestibule; contains the clitoris, most anteriorly,followed by the urethral orifice & the vaginal orifice
perineum the diamond-shaped region between teh anterior end of the labial folds, the ischial tuberosities laterally & the anus posteriorly
the clitoris is a small protruding structure, homologous to the male penis (composed of highly sensitive, erectile tissue)
the clitoris is hooded by skin folds of the anterior labia minor referred to as the prepuce of the clitoris
the urethral orifice lies posterior to the plitoris, is the outlet for the urinary system & has no reproductive function in the female
the vaginal opening is partially closed by a thin fold of mucous membrane called the ____ & is flanked by the pea-sized, mucus-secreting ____ hymen; greater vestibular glands
what is so special about these glands? the lubricate the distal end of the vagina during coitus (sex)
the internal female organs include the vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries, & the ligaments & supporting structures that suspend these organs in teh pelvic cavity
the vagina extends for approx ___cm from teh bestibule to the uterus superiorly 10cm (4 inches)
what does it serve as a copulatory organ & birth canal, & permits passage of the mestrual flow
the uterus is pear-shaped; situated between the bladder & the rectum, is a muscular organ w. its narrow end
where is the cervix located in terms of the uterus directed inferiorly
the major portion of the uterus is reffered to as the body
the uterus' superior rounded region above the entrance of the uterine tubes is called the fundus
where does fertilization occur? in the fallopian tube
the deeper _______ forms a new functionalis after menstruation ends stratum basalis or basal layer
uterine; fallopian tubes enter the sperolateral region f the uterus & extend laterally for about 10cm (4in) toward the ovaries in the peritoneal cavity
the distal ends of the tubes are funnel-shaped & have fingerlike projections called ___ fimbriae
PID (pelivic inflammatory disease) inflammations of the pelivc viscera
what is the broad ligament the fold that encloses the uterine tubes & uterus & secures them to the lateral body walls
what part of the broad ligament specifically anchors the uterus the mesometrium
what anchors the uterine tubes the mesosalpinx
what are round ligaments fibrous cords that run from the uterus to the labia majora
the uterosacral ligaments course posteriorly to the sacrum also help attach the uterus tot he body wall
the ovaries are supported medially by the ovarian ligament (extending fromt eh uterus to the ovary)
the ovaries are supported laterally by the suspensory ligaments
the ovaries are supported posteriorly by a fold of the broad ligament the mesovarium
within the ovaries, the female gametes (eggs) begin their development in saclike structures called follicles
the growing follicels also produce estrogens
when a developing egg has reached the appropriate stage of maturity, it is ejected from teh ovary in an event called ovulation
the ruptured follicle is then converted to a second type of endocrine gland called a corpus luteum, which secretes progesterone (& some estrogens)
are the ovaries connected to the uterine tubes no
an ovulated egge enters the pelvic cavity
what do the waving fimbriae of the uterine tubes create fluid currents that if successful draw the egg intot he lumen of the uterine tube, where it begins its passage to the uterus, propelled by the cilia of the tubule walls
what are the 3 layers of the uterine wall the endometrium, myometrium & serosa
the 2 strat of the endometrium are the functional layer (stratum functionalis) & the basal layer (stratum basalis) which forms a new functional layer each month
areola pigmented area surrounds a centrally protuding nipple
each mammary gland consists of ___ lobes that___ 15-25 lobes which radiate around the nipple & are separated by fibrous connective tissue & adipose or fatty tissue
within each lobe are smaller chambers called lobules; they contain teh glandular albeoli that produce milk during lactaion
what produces milk during lactation alveoli
the alveoli of each lobule pass the milk into a number of ___ which join to form an expanded storage chamber the ____ as they approach the nipple lactiferous ducts; lactiferous sinus
Created by: Brina



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