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Exercise 40

Anatomy of the Urinary System

the purpose of the urinary system is to remove nitrogenous wastes from the body
this is an ___ function excretory
the kidney's maintain the electrolyte, acid-base, & fluid balances of the blood & is a mj. function of homeostatic organ of the body
explain the performance functions of the kidneys (1) act as a blood "filter" (2) a blood "processor"; allows toxins, metabolic wastes & excess ions to leave the body in the urine while simultaneously retaing needed substances & returning them to the blood
malfunction of the urinary system (kindeys) leads to failure in homeostasis; can be fatal
what does the urinary system consist of? paired kidneys & ureters & the urinary bladder & urethra
all other organs besides the kidneys provide temporary storage reservoirs or transportation channels for urine
the __ kidney is slightly lower than the ___ kidney right kid is slightly lower than the left kid
what hold the kidneys in a retroperitoneal position? fat deposits (adipose capsules) & fibrous renal capsules
ptosis when the kidneys are less securely anchored to the body wall due to reduced or rapid weight loss (very thin individuals); may cause kidneys to drop to a lower position
hilus present in each kidney; the indented medial region where the renal arteries enter
urethra drains the bladder
trigone triangular region of the bladder which is delineated by three openings (2 ureteral & 1 urethral orifice)
name the 3 main regions of the peins prostatic, membranous & spongy (penile) urethrae
the urethra of males has a ____ function dual
what are they? (1) it is a urine conduit to the body exterior (2) provides a passageway for the ejaculation of semen
how long is the urethra in males approximately 20cm (8 inches)
how long is the urethra in females approx. 4cm (1 1/2 inches)
external urethral orifice anterior to the vaginal opeing, the external opening
each kidney contains over a million ___ nephrons; the anatomical units responsible for forming urine
name the 2 major structures in each nephron a glomerulus(capillary knot) & a renal tubule
the renal tubule in embryologic development begins as a blind-ended tubule that gradually encloses an adjacent capillary cluster, or glomerulus
the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is the enlarged end of the tubule encasing the glomerulus
what does the glomerular's inner/visceral wall consist of podocytes; highly specialized cells
what structures do podocytes have? long, branching processes (foot processes) that interdigitate w. those of other podocytes & cling to the endothelial wall of the glomerular capillaries; forms the porous epithelial membrane surrounding the glomerulus
what is another name for the glomerulus-capsule complex? renal corpuscle
name the anatomical areas of the renal tubule in order from the glomerular capsule the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle (descending & ascending limbs) & the distal convoluted tubule
what type of tissue is the wall of the renal tubule composed almost entirely of? cuboidal epithelial cells
the tissue in the loop of Henle is simple squamous epithelium
where are cortical nephrons located? within the cortex
as the collecting ducts approach the renal pelvis they fuse to form larger ____, (what do these structures do?) papillary ducts, they empty the final urinary product into the calyces & pelvis of the kidney
name the 2 distinct capillary beds that the capillary vascular supply consists of glomerulus & peritubular capillary bed
vessels leading to & from the glomerulus, the 1st capillary bed are both __ arterioles
the afferent arteriole feeds the bed
the efferent arteriole drains the bed
the glomerular capillary bed is __-pressure high
b.c of this the two major resulting factors are (1) bed is fed & drained by arterioles (arterioles are high-resistance vessels) (2) the afferent feeder arteriole is larger in diameter than the efferent arteriole draning the bed
the high hydrostatic pressure forces out fluid & blood components smaller than proteins from the glumerulus intot he glomerular capsule (forms the filtrate which is processed by the nephron tubule)
peritubular capillary bed arises from the efferent arteriole draining the glomerulus (clings intimately tot he renal tubule & empties into the interlobular veins that leave the cortex)
what type of pressure is the peritubular capillaries low-pressure
what does this cause? cery prous capillaries adapted for absorption rather than filteration & redily take up the solutes & water reabsorbed from the filtrate by the tubule cells
what are the additional looping vessels that the juxtamedullary nephrons have? what are they parallel to vasa recta (straight vessels); parallel to the long loops of Henle in the medulla
the glomerulus produces the ___ & the peritubular capillaries __ most of that filtrate filtrate, reclaim
JGA; juxtaglomerular apparatus plays an important role in filtrate formation
what does the JGA consist of (1) juxtaglomerular (JG) cells (2) pressure sensors in the walls of the arterioles near the glomerulus (3) macula densa, a specialized group of columnar cells in the distal convoluted tubule abuting the JG cells
name the 3 processes that urine results from filtration, reabsorption & secretion
filration is the role of the glomerulus
what is filtration a passive process in which a portion of the blood passes from the blomerular bed into the glomerular capsule; filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule where tubular reabsorption & secretionb begin
reabosprption of most substances depends on active transport processes & is highly selective
during tubular reabosorption the filtrate components move through the tubule cells & return to the blood in the peritubular capillaries
name the substaces that are almost entirely reabsorbed from teh filtrate water, glucose & amino acids
most (75%-80%) of tubular rabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule
tubular secretion the reverse process of tubular reabsorption; important for the disposal of substances not already in the filtrate (drug metabolites) controlling device for blood pH
name the substances that move either fm the blood of the peritubular capillaries through the tubular cells or from the tubular cells into the filtrate to be disposed of in the urine hydrogen, potassium ions & creatinine
urinary bladder receives urine via the ureters & discharges it via the urethra, stores it temporarily
voiding is also known as micturition; urine empties from the bladder
name the 2 sphinctermuscles/valves that control the outflow of urine from the bladder internal urethral sphincter (superiorly) & the external urethral sphincter (inferiorly located)
inferior external sphincter consists of skeletal muscle & is voluntarily controlled
Created by: Brina