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AP Hum Geo Ch8

political geography A subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth’s surface. It is concerned with why political spaces emerge in the places that
state A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion or the international community. A state has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other
territoriality In political geography, a country’s or more local community’s sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expressed by its determination to keep it inviolable and strongly defended. See more generally human territoriality.
sovereignty A principle of international relations that holds that final authority over social, economic, and political matters should rest with the legitimate rulers of independent states.
territorial integrity The right of a state to defend sovereign territory against incursion from other states.
mercantilism In a general sense, associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade. More specifically, a protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that promoted a state’s economic position in the contest with other
Peace of Westphalia Peace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years’ War, Europe’s most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security.
nation Legally, a term encompassing all the citizens of a state. Most definitions now tend to refer to a tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes. Such homogeneity actually prevails wit
nation-state Theoretically, a recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation. Most nations and states aspire to this form, but it is realized almost nowhere. Nonetheless
democracy Government based on the principle that the people are the ultimate sovereign and have the final say over what happens within the state.
multinational state State with more than one nation within its borders.
multistate nation Nation that stretches across borders and across states.
stateless nation Nation that does not have a state.
colonialism Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place. Although often established and maintained through political structures, colonialism also creates unequal cultural and economic relation. Because of the magnitude and impact of the
scale Representation of a real-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance; indicated on a map as a bar graph, representative fraction, and/or verbal statement.
capitalism Economic model wherein people, corporations, and states produce goods and exchange them on the world market, with the goal of achieving profit.
commodification The process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that has a particular price and that can be traded in a m
core Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy.
periphery Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy.
semi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery.
ability In the context of political power, the capacity of a state to influence other states or achieve its goals through diplomatic, economic, and militaristic means.
centripetal Forces that tend to unify a country-such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.
centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
unitary A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
federal A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests-defense, foreign affairs, and the like-yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and
devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
territorial representation System wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district.
reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people.
splitting In the context of determining representative districts, the process by which the majority and minority populations are spread evenly across each of the districts to be created therein ensuring control by the majority of each of the districts; as opposed t
majority-minority districts In the context of determining representative districts, the process by which a majority of the population is from the minority.
gerrymandering Redistricting for advantage, or the practice of dividing areas into electoral districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possi
boundary Vertical plane between states that cuts through the rocks below, and the airspace above the surface.
geometric boundary Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) as a straight line or an arc.
physical-political boundary Political boundary defined and delimited (and occasionally demarcated) by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape-such as a river or the crest ridges of a mountain range.
heartland theory A geopolitical hypothesis, proposed by British geographer Halford Mackinder during the first two decades of the twentieth century, that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain sufficient strength to eventually dominate the world. Mac
critical geopolitics Process by which geopoliticians deconstruct and focus on explaining the underlying spatial assumptions and territorial perspectives of politicians.
unilateralism World order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process.
supranational organization A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization.
Created by: KT's AP HG

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