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WVSOM skin System 2012 Dugan- Staphylococci

Is Staph Gram (+) or Gram (-)? Gram positive
What does Staph appear like on Gram stain? "grape-like" clusters
What is the lab media utilized for growing Staph? agar with amino acids and B vitamens
What is unique about the environment Staph can grow in? It can grow in high concentrations of salt (>7.5%)
Define the differences of S. aureus, S. Epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus as they would appear on agar (i.e. Colony color, mannitol fermentation) S.aureus is yellow as opposed to S. epidermidis and S. Saprophyticus which are white. S.aureus ferments mannitol whereas the others do not.
What is the immunologic function of peptidoglycan? Chemoattractant for PMN leukocytes activator of the C3b alternative pathway for complement
What is the function of teichoic acids? Adherence
How do gram positive bacteria cause shock? Excessive inflammation causes epithelium damage excessive activation of coagulaton pathway leads to blood clots the combination of the two leads to multiple organ failure.
What is the function of Protein A? Anti-opsonin; binds FC portion of IgG
What is fibronectin-binding protein? It promotes binding to mucosal cells
What is the function of the micro-capsule? Anti-phagocytic due to high polysaccharide content
What are the toxins and enzymes released by Staph? Catalase, Coagulase, Hemolysins, Leukocidin, exfoliatin, enterotoxins
what is the benefit of enterotoxins? resist low pH of the stomach
Why are superantigens so toxic? Because they cause T cells to produce IL1, INF-y, TNF in toxic amounts
How does Staph enter the body? Damaged skin or mucous membranes
What epidermolytic toxins cause scalded skin syndrome? A and B
what is the treament for a minor skin infection with staph? Tetracycline
what is the treatment for abscesses of Staph? incision/drainage, methicillin or nafcillin
How does Staph become resistance to penicillin? Breakage of the beta- lactam ring
how does staph become resistant to methicillin? altered penicillin binding proteins that don't allow transpeptidase to bind protein.
What does S.Epidermidis cause? Introduced devices (catheters, valves, etc)
S.Sapropyticus causes what? UTI in females
Created by: Bwest8