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Ultimate review

AP Human Geography, the ultimate review

Base Line The east-west line designated under the land ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the US
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together consitute a group of people performing the act
Cultural Landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Concentration A close gathering of people or things
Distortion An aberation of a lens or optical system in which the magnification varies with the lateral distance from the axis
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas orginate
Relocation Diffusion The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature from one place to another in snowballing process
Hierarchial Diffusion The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, wide spread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population
Stimulus Diffusion The spread of an underlying principle, event hough a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse
Direction The line along which anything lies faces, moves, etc. with reference to the point or region torward which it is directed
Absolute Direction The direction of a place in reference to a map including the Earths entire surface
Relative Direction Left, right, forward, backward, up, down
Distance The amount of space between two things, points, lines, etc.
Absolute Distance The shortest path seperation between two places measured on a standard unit of length
Relative Distance Distance relative to a specific reference point usually in one motion
Distribution The arrangement of something across earth's surface
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement or something in a study area
Distance Decay The dimininishing in importance and eventual dissapearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from it's origin
Equator The great circle of the earth that is equidistant from the north and south pole
Environmental Determinism How the physical environment causes human activities
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer system that stores, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satelites, tracking stations, and receivers
Greenwhich Meantime The time in that time zone ecompassing the prime meridian, or 0 degrees longitude
International Dateline When time changes by going forward 24 hours at 180 degrees longitude
Location Position of anything on Earth's surface
Absolute Location A point on Earth's surface expressed by a coordinate system such as longitude and latitude
Relative Location A point or place in relation to another point or place
Site The position or location of a town, building, escpecially as it is to the environment
Situation Location or position with reference to its environment
Latitude The angular distance north or south from the equator of a point on the earth's surface, measured on the meridian of the point
Longitude Angular distance east or west on the earth's surface measured by the angle constrained between the meridian and the prime meridian
Map A representation of the earth and its features
Thematic Map Maps that show geographic patterns in statistical data, such as population or median income
Statistical Map A map that shows different statistics
Cartogram Map A diagrammatic presentation in highly abstracted or simplified form, commonly of stastistical data, on a map base or distorted map base
Chloropleth Map A symbol or marked and bounded area on a map denoting the distribution of some property
Isoline A line on a map, chart, or graph connecting points of equal value
Mental Map A map in ones mind that contains the knowledge of an area or an object that a person has
Meridian An ark drawn on a map connecting the north and south poles
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on hum actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and perpendicular to the meridians
Prime Meridian The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwhich, England
Projection The sytem used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Place A specific point on earth distingushed by a particular character
Polder Land created by the dutch by draining water from an area
Remote Sensing The acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satelite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Formal Region An area in whch everyone shares in one more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region An area organized around a mode or focal point
Vernacular Region An area that people believe exists as part of the culutral identity
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole
Section A square normally, 1 mile on a side Land ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the US into 36 sections
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Township A suare normally 6 miles on a side, land ordinace of 1785 divided much of the US into townships
Uneven development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Age Distribution The percentage of the total population of each sex, at each age level
Carrying capacity Theoretical limit to the capacity of a natural ecosystem to support continued increase in consumption of its resource and in generation of pollution without being overwhelmed
Cohort Group whose members share a significant experiece at a certain period of time or have one or more similar characteristics
Demographic Equation The formula the calculated population change. The increase or decrease in population is births minus plus or minus net migration
Demgraphic momentum The phenomenon of continued population increase despite reduced reporductive rates
Demgraphic Regions Defined regions where demographics of an area take place
Demographic Transition Model The transition from high birth rates and death rates to low birth rates as a counrty develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system
Dependency Ratio An age population ratio of those typically not in the labor force and those who are
Diffusion of Fertility Control The spread of birth control in an area
Disease Diffusion The idea that disease spreads out from a central source
Doubling Time When a population doubles itself by having two or more natural increase rate
Ecumene The permanetly inhabited portion of the earth as distinguished from the uninhabited or temporarily habited area
Epidemiological Transition Model A phase of development witnessed by a sudden and stark increase in pop growth rated brought by medical innovation in disease or sickness therapy and treatment
Gendered Space Where genders are seperated into different places
Infant Mortality Rate Annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age per 1000 people in the population
J-curve This is when the projection population show exponential growth; sometimes shape as a j-curve
Maladaptation In complete, inadequate or faulty adaptation
Thomas Malthus Was one of the first to argue that the worlds rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population
Mortality The proportion of deaths to population
Natality Birthrate
Neo-Malthusian theory that builds upon Malthus’ thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC’s, and outstripping of resources other than food
Overpopulation The condition of having a population so dense as to cause environmental deterioration, an impaired quality of life, or a poulation crash
Population Densities Measure of peoples per unit area
Population Distributions The arrangment or spread of people living in a given area also how the population of an area is arranged according to variables such as age, race, or sex
Population Explosion The rapid increase in numbers of a particular species, especially in the world's human population since the end of WWII attributed to an accelerating birthrate, a decrease in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy
Population Project The predictions of future populations based on the present age-sex structure and with the present rates of fertility, mortality and migration
Population Pyramid A graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a human population
Natural Increase Rate The crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population
S-Curvve traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph
Sex Ratio The proportioned distribution of the sexes in a population aggregate, expressed as the number of males per 100 females
Standard of Living a grade or a level of subsistence and comfort in everyday life anjoyed by a community, class, or individual
Sustainability Ability to be sustained, supported upheld, or confirmed
Underpopulation Having a population lower than is desirable
Zero Population Growth The maintenance of a population at a constant level by limiting the number of live births to that needed to replace the existing population
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location
Chain Migration Migration of people to a specific locations because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there
Cyclic Movement Short term or repetitive movements that recur on a regular basis
Emigration Migration from a location
Forced Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Gravity Model Predicts the movements of people and ideas between two people
Guest Workers Workers who migrate to the mdcs of Northern and Western Europe usually from southern and eastern europe or from North Africa in search of high paying jobs
Human Capital The stock of competences, knowledhe and personality attributed emodied in the ability to perform labor so as to produce economic value
Immigration Migration to a new location
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a particular country
International Migration Permanent movement from one country to another
Intervening Obstacle An environmental or culutral feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Intervening Opportunity When a migrant runs into an opportunity when migrating
Life Course The connection between individuals and socioeconomic context in which these individuals lived
Migration Patterns Specific migration which constitutes an identification or even predictable movement of people
Migratory Movement Movement pertaining to migration
Periodic Movement Movement that recurs over and over and the period of time required for each reccurence remains the same
Personal Space Sone around individuals which they reserve for themselves
Step Migration Migration to a distant destination that occurs in stages
Transhumance A seasonal periodic movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowlands
Voluntary Migration Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Acculturation The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another
Assimilation Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture
Adaptive Strategies A societies system of economic production
Anglo American Characteristics Distinguished by a set of cultural traits like language, beliefs, customs, norms of behavior, social insitutions, artifacts, etc.
Architectural Forms The difference in architectural preference, mainly housing, based on social economic cultural and environmental factors
Built environment Man-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity ranging from large-scale civic surroundings to personal places
Custom The frequent repetition of an act tot he extent that it becomes characteristic of the goup of people performing the act
Folk Culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Folk Food Everything in nature carries a signature or distinctive characteristic based on its appearance and natural properties
Habit a repetitive act performed by a particualr individual
Material Culture The visible objects that a group leaves behind for the future
Nonmaterial Culture Things that people leave behind but can't physically touch such as language, beliefs and values, religion, ethninicty
Popular Culture Culture found in a large heterogenous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics
Taboo A restriction on behavior imposed by a social custom
Terrior The contribution of a locations distinctive physical features tot he way food tastes
Creole A pidgin that has become the native language of a speech community
Dialect A variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by a feature of phonology, grammar and vocabulary and by its use by a group of speakers who are set off from others geographically or socially
Indo-European Languages A family of several hundred related languages and dialects including most major current languages of europe and more
Isogloss A line on a map marking the limits of an area within which a feature of speech occurs as the use of a particular word or pronunciation
Language A body of words and the system for their use is common to people who are of the same community or nations the same geographical area or the same cultural tradition
Language Family Any group of languages derive from a common ancestor
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent pst and disply few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Language Subfamily A division of languages below a family and above a branch
Lingua Franca An auxilary language that has come into existence through the attempts by the speakers of two different languages to communicate and that is primarily a simplified form of one language with a rediced vodabulary and grammatical structure
Linguistic Diversity A variety of languages used in a area
Monolingual Only knowing or able to use one language
Multilingual Using or being able to speak several or many languages with facility
Official Language A language that is specifically designated to be so in the constitution of countries, states, and other territories
Pidgin Any language that is widely used as a means of communication among speakers of other languages
Toponym The place names of a region or language and/or the study of such place names
Trade Languages A language especially a pidgin, used by different speakers of different languages for communication in commercial trade
Animism Belief that objects, such as plants and stones or natural events like thunderstorms and earthquakes have a discrete spirit and concious life
Baha'i A universalizing religion belief in Bab's disciples Husayo Ali Nuri was the messanger and prophet of god. His function was to overcome the disunity of religions and establish a universal faith through abolition of racial class, and religious prejudices
Branch A large and fundamental division within a religion
Buddhism 3rd of the world's major universalizing religions. It follows 4 noble truths and the eightfold path
Christianity The religion with the most adherents has the most widespread distribution. It has 3 main branches and follows the teachings of Jesus
Confucianism Follows the philosopher confucious and his orderly conduct
Denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single legal and administrative body
Ethnic Religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spacial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Exclave A territory legally or politically attached to another territory of which it is not contiguous
Enclave A territory whose geographic boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory
Fundamentalism Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion
Hadj The pilgramage to Mecca that every muslim has to take if physically and financially capable
Hinduism Ethnic religion, 3rd largest religion behind christianity and islam it has no specific founder and follows the teachings of siddartha guatama
Islam A universalizing religioon and is the 2nd largest religion in the world. It is practiced in the middle east and some countries in southeast asia. It is the belief that there is only one god and Muhammed is his prophet
Jainism An Indian religion that pescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings
Judaism Ethnic religion. Believes that god revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on mount Sinai
Monotheism The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
Polytheism The doctrine or belief in the existence of more than one god
Mormonism Practiced by latter-day saints they followed JOseph Smith Jr.
Proselytic/ missionizing religion a person converted to a religious faith or sect a conert
Reincarnation Where the soul/ spirit after death of the body is believed to return to live in a new human body or in some traditions, either as a human being or as an animal or plant
Sacred Space Sacred space is the place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Secularism The principle of seperation between government and religion
Shamanism A range of beliefs and practices regarding communication with the spririted world
Sharia Law The moral code and religious law of islam
Shintoism Inigenous spiritually of Japan and the Japanese people a set of principles to be carried out diligently to connect modern japan with anicent japan
Sikkhism A monotheistic religion founded in the 15th century in the punjabregion by guru's. It follows the guru's
Sunni/Shia Branches of Islam that believe that Muhammed should be the descendent of Abraham or can be anyone
Taoism Tradition in which the basic concept is to establish harmony with the mechanism of evertyhing that exists
Theocracy A form of organization in which the official policy is to be governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are defined as divinely guided
Universalizing Religions A religion that attempts to appeal to all people not just those living in a particular location
Zoroastrianism A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster
Acculturation A cultural modification of an individual group or people by adapting or borrowing traits from another culture
Adaptive Strategy The unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment those aspects of culture that sure to provide the necessities of life
Assimilation Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture
Barrio A ward, quarter, or district of a city that spreaks spanish in the United States
Cultural Adaptation Process of adjusting health initiatives to the intended audience using terms, images, graphic elements, and delivery methods that reflect the cultural values and social forms of the intended audience
Cultural Shatterbelt A politically unstable region where differing cultural elements come into contact and conflict
Ethnic Cleansing Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnic homogeneous region
Ethnic Conflict A war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism
Ethnic Enclave A neighborhood, disttrict, or suburb which retains some cultural distinction from larger, surrounding area
Ethnic Group A group identified on the basis of religion color or national origin
Ethnic Homeland The concept of the territory to which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association
Ethnic Landscape An expression of peoples idea and work, illustrating intristic understanding of relationships of people to their fellow beings and environment
Ethnic Neighborhood A neighborhood ditrict or suburb which retains some cultural distinction from a larger surrounding area
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Ethnocentrism Regarding one's own culture as being superior to others and judging other cultures from the perspective of your own culture
Ghetto Now used to denote a section of a city in which members of a minority group live by because of social, legal, or economic pressure
Plural Society A situation in which two or more culture groups occupy the same territory but maintain their seperate cultural identities
Race Identity with a group of people descended from a common ancestor
Segregation Seperation of people of different race or ethnic groups in schools, housing, public facilities for purposes of discrimination
Social Distance The perceived or desired degree of remoteness between a member of one social group and the members of another as evidenced in the level of intimacy tolerated between them
Annexation The act of incorporating a territory into the domain of a city country or state
Border Landscape There are two types, exclusionary and inclusionary. Exclusionary is meant to keep people out, such as the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Inclusionary is meant to facilitate trade and movement, such as the U.S.-Canada border.
Boundary The invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
Natural Boundary Physical features on earth's surface can make boundaries because they are easily seen
Ethnographic (cultural) Boundaries Gemometric and ethnic straight lines drawn on a map
Buffer State A small neutral state between the rival powers
capital Principle city in a state or a country
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism Attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Confederation The act of forming an alliance or confederation
Core/ Periphery Core countries have high levels of development, a capacity at innovation and a convergence of trade flows. Periphery countries usually have less development and are poorer countries.
Decolonization The action of changing from colonial to independent states
Devolution The process where by regions within a state and gain political strength and growing autonomy
Domino Theory The political theory that if one nation comes under communist control the neighboring nations will also come under communist control
European Union An international organization of European countries foormed after WWII to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
Federal An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local governments
Frontier A zone seperating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Geopolitics THe study of the affects of economic geography on the powers of the state
Gerrymander Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purposes of benefiting the party in the power
Heartland the central region of a country or continent; especially a region that is important to a country or to a culture
Rimland the maritime fringe of a country or continent
Immigrant States a type of receiving state which is the target of many immigrants
Iron Curtain A national barrier that prevents the passage of information of ideas between political entities in particular
Irredentism The doctrine that irredenta should be controlled by the country to which they are ethnically or historically related
Landlocked A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Law of the Sea 1994, Constitution for the ocean to protect resources
Manifest Destiny Mid- 19th centruy expansion to the pacific
Median-line Principle An approach to deviding and creating boundaries at the mid-point between two places
Microstate A state that encompasses a very small land area and population
Ministate Independent state that is small in area and population
Nation Geographic area that is dominated by a large population and shares a common history and culture
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approx. the same number of people
Regionalism Loyalty to the interests of a particular region
Reunification The act of coming together again
Satellite State A political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but under heavy influence or control by another country
Self Determination The ability of a government to determine their own course or will
Shatterbelt A region that is persistently splintering and fracturing
Sovereignty Ablility of a state to govern its territory free from control its internal affairs by other states
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Stateless Nation A nationality that is not represented by a state
Suffrage A legal right guarenteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
Supranationalism A venture involving 3 or more national states political, economic, or cultural cooperation to promote shared objects
Compacted State The distance from the geographic center to any point on the boundary does not vary greatly
Fragmented State State split into many peices
Elongated State State that is geographically long and narrow
Prorupt State A state having a portion of a territory that is elongated
Perforated State A state that totally surrounds another state
Territoriality A country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory as expressed by its determination to keep it strongly defended
Theocracy A system of government in which priests rule in the name of god or a god
Unitary An internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Agricultural Labor Force The number of people who work in agriculutre
Core-periphery model describes the pattern of distribution of MDCs and LDCs
Cultural Convergence The change in culture that occurs as diffusion of ideas and technology
Dependency Theory States that LDCs tend to have a higher dependency ratio
Development The improvement in material conditions of a place as a result of diffusion of technology and knowledge
Energy Consumption An index of development MDCs tend to consume much more energy per capita than do LDCs
Environmental Issues Negative aspects of human activity on the biophysical environment
Foreign Direct Investment Investment in the economics of LDCs by transitional corporations based in MDCs
Gender An important development factor, a great difference in development between genders if found primarily in LDCs especially in the Middle East
Gross Domestic Product The total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country
Gross National Product Similar to GDP except that includes income that people earn abroad
Human Development Index An aggregate index of development which takes into account economic social and demographic factors using GDP literacy and education and life expectancy
Levels of Development Countries are classified into include MDCs and LDCs
Measures of Development Used to distinguish LDCs from MDCs. GDP, Literacy rate, life expectancy calorie intake
Millenium Development Goals 8 international development goals that all UN member states and at least 23 international organisms have agreed to achieve by the year 2015
Natural Resources Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
Neocolonialism Refers to the economic control that MDCs are sometimes believed to have over LDCs
Physical Quality of Life Index another development index it is based on literacy rate infant mortality rate and life expectancy
Purchasing power party An index of income related to GDP, takes into account price differences between countries
W.W. Rostow Developed the "stages of growth" model of economic development
Sustainable Development A pttern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that needs can be met in present and future
Technology Gap The difference in technologies used and/or developed in two companies countries ethnic group where one is more advanced than the other
Technology Transfer Process by which existing knowledge facilities or capabilites developed inder federal research and development funding are utilized to fufill public and private reads
Third World Countries in the developing world independent of their political status
world Systems Theory The perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the capitalist world economy as a total social system
Adaptive Strategies A mode of coping with competition or environmental conditions on an evolutionary time scale species adapt when suceeding generations emphasize beneficial characteristic
Agarian People or societies that are farmers therefor promote agricultural interest
Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by intergration of different steps in the food processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agricultural Industrialization The use of machinery in agriculture like tractors
Agricultural Landscape The land we farm on and what we choose
Agricultural Location Model 4 generalized types of economic and agricultural activities, categorized according to relative economic yield per unit area and perishability or difficulty of delivering products to markets
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain
Animal Domestication Domestication of animals for selling or using by products
Aquaculture The cultivation of aquatic organisms especially for food
Biorevolution The revolution of biotechnology and the use of it in societies
Biotechnology Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops
Collective Farm The farm, it's building and its machinery may be owned communally by the group by an institution or as in communist countries by the state
Commercial Agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same land
Primary Sector Jobs like lumber and mining
Secondary Sector Maufacturing products and assembling raw materials
Tertiray Sector The service sector that provides us with transportation, communication, and facilities
Environmental Modifications The destruction of the environment for the purpose of farming
Shifting Cultivation Use many fields for crop growing each field is used for a couple of years then left fellow for a relatively long time
Nomadic Herding/ Pastoralism Based on herding domesticated animals
Extractive Industry An processes that involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers
Feed Lot A plot of land on which livestock are fattened for the market
Forestry The science of planting and taking care of trees and forests
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer
Intertillage Tillage between rows of crops of plant
Market Hardening The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold directly to local consumers
Planned Economy Economic system in which a single agency makes all the decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services
Plant Domestication Deliberate tending of crops to gain certain desired attributes began around 12,000 years ago along several fertile river valleys and cultural hearths
Plantation Agriculture when cash crops are grown on large estates, usually are found in poorer primarily tropical countries along with subsistence farming
Renewable Energy replaced continually within a human lifespan has an essentially unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by people
Nonrenewable Energy formed so slowly that for practical purposes it cannot be renew
Rural Settlement Spasely settled places away from the influence of large cities
Dispersed Rural Settlement Characterized by farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors rather than alongside other farmers in the area
Nucleated Rural Settlement A number of families live in close proximity to each other, with fields surrounding the collection of houses and farm buildings Bu
Building Material Houses and Buildings are typically built from the materials that are abundant in the area
Village Form A rural settlement, the inhabitants of which are occupied primarily in agriculture
Specialization 3rd level of cities offer a narrow and highly specialized variety of services
Staple Grains Maize, wheat, and rice are the most produced grans produced worldwide
Suitcase Form Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for thier crops and livestock
Long Lots Houses erected on narrow lots perpendicular along arrival so that each original settler had equal river access
Metes and Bounds Uses of physical features of the local geography along with directions and distances to define the boundaries of a particular peice of land
Sustainable Yeild Ecological yeild that can be extracted without reducing the base of capitol itself the surplus required to matain nature's services at the same or increasingly or time
Transhumance The action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle, typically to lowlands in winter and highlands in summer
Agglomeration Phenomenon of economic activity congregating in or close to a single location rather than being spread out uniformly across space
Fordism Approach that explains how many industries are attracted to locations with relatively skilled labor to introduce new rules
Bid-rent Theory Explains that price/demand for land increases closer to the CBD
Break of Bulk Point Point of location where transfer among transportation modes is possible
Carrier Efficiency An organization that provides communications and networking services
Commodity Chain A sequential process used log forms to gather resources transform them into goods or commodities and finally distribute them to consumers
Comparative Advantage The ability of an individual firm or country to produce food or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers
Cumulative Causation A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self reinforcing an expression of the multiplier effect it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less advantages peripheral regions
Deglomeration The dispersal of an industry that formaly existed in an established agglomeration
Ecotourism Tourism to exotic or threatened ecosystems to observe wild life or to help preserve nature
Energy Resources Something that can be used to produce work in a geologic contest a material that can be used to produce energy
Export Processing Zone A designated area in a county in which production for export is encouraged usually by special tax treatments and by permitting firms to import duty-free so long as the imports are used to input production or exports
Fixed Costs Business costs, such as rent, that are constant whatever the quantity of goods or export
Footloose Industry An industry that can be placed and located at any location without effect from factors such as resources or transport
Greenhouse Effect The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere to visible radiation from the sun than to inferred radiation emitted from the planets surface
Industrial Location Theory Any theory attempting to explain why industries are found to have located in the places they are found
Infrastructure Basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the operations of a society of enterprise
Labo-Intensive Needing a large workforce or a large amount of work in relation to output
Maguiladoras A factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company
Multiplier Effect The idea that an initial amount of spending leads to increased consumption
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
Outsourcing Obtaining goods/services from an outside or foreign supplier
Substitution Principle The substitution of a product, service or process to another that is more efficient or beneficial in some way
Threshold A limit below which a stimulus causes no reaction
Time-Space Compression Processes that seem to accelerate the experience of time and reduce the significance of distance during a given historical moment
Topocide Deliberate killing of a place through industrial expansion and change so that its earlier landscape and character are destroyed
Weight-gaining Industry An industry that makes something that gains volume or weight during production
Weight-losing Industry INputs weigh more than the final products
Basic Industries Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement
Business Services Services that primarily meet the news of other businesses including professional financial and transportation services
Central Business District The commercial and often geographic heart of a city
Central Place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
Central Place Theory A theory that explains the distribution of services based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Clustered Rural Settlement A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surrounf the settlement
Consumer Services Business that provide services primarily to individual consumers industry retail services and education health and leisure services
Dispersed Rural Settlement A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages
Economic Base A community's collection of basic industries
Enclosure Movement The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger forms in England during the 18th century
Gravity Model A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the services
Market Area The area surrounding a central place from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and servics
Nonbasic Industries Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community
Personal Services Used to refer collectively to commercial services such as catering cleaning that supply the personal needs of customers
Primate City The largest settlement in a country if it has more than twice as many people as the second ranking settlement
Primate City Rule A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the 2nd ranking settlement
Producer Services Services for manufacturing and other tertiary services
Public Services Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
Range The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
Rank-Size Rule A pattern of settlements in a country that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
Retail Services Provision of recurrently needed services of a personal nature
Service Any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
Settlement A permanent collection of buidlings and inhabitants
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Transportation/ Information Services Services that diffuse and distribute services
Megalopolis A very large heavily populated city or urban complex
Conurbation An extended urban area, typically consisting of several towns merging with the suburbs of one or more cities
Metropolitan Area A region consisting of a populous urban core with a high density of employment plus surrounding territory that is socio-economically linked to the urban core by commuting
Multiple Nuclei Model The approach to city growth that assumes a city has several centers and gives its distinctive cast to the surrounding area
Multiplier Effect The expansion of social and/or economic capital by increasing investment in organizations and enterprises
Neighborhood An area within a city or town that has some distinctive features
Office Park An area where a number of office buildings are built together on landscape grounds
Peak Land Value Intersection Region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce
Planned communities A residential district that is planned for a certain class of residents
Postindustrial City A city that has moved past the stage of heavy industry to an economy that is mainly centered on knowledge-based and service professions
Post Modern Urban Landscape Skyscrapers and Traffic Congestion
Racial Steering The practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
Redlining Refusal of a loan or insurance to someone because they live in an area deemed to be a poor financial risk
Restrictive Covenants A covenant imposing a restriction on the use of land so that the value and enjoyment of adjoining land will be preserved
Sector Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors (wedges), radiating out from the CBD
Segregation The action or state of setting someone or things or being set apart
Slum A squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor people
Specialization A making or becoming specialized
Squatter Settlement A slum settlement of impoverished people who live in improvised dwellings made from scrap materials
Street Patterns Grid's streets run a t right angles to each other
Suburb An outlying district of a city a residential one
Sub-urbanize To give suburban characteristics
Symbolic Landscape Represents values and aspirations that builders an financiers want to impart to others
Tenement A house divided in two and rented in such separate residences
Town An urban area that has a name, defined boundaries, and a local government and traits larger than a village and generally smaller than a city
Underclass The lowest social stratum in a country or community, consisting of the poor and unemployed
Underemployment Refers to an employment situation that is insufficient in some important way for the worker, relative to a standard
Urban Growth Rate Rate of growth of an urban population
Urban Function Place that offers no services
Urban Hearth Area An area, like Mesopotamia or the Nile river valley where large cities first existed
Urban Heat Island A metropolitan area which is significally warmer than its surrounding rural class
Urban Hierarchy Term that related the structure of towns within an area
Urban Hydrology Urbanization changes the hydrology of a drainage basin
Urban Morphology The study of the form of human settlements and the process of their formation and transformation
Urbanization The physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change
Urbanized population The population of an incorporated area, such as a city or town
Zoning Divided into or assigned to zones in particular
Created by: adrienne97
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