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Chap 21 Development

Human Development and Genetics

QuestionAnswer
The period from fertilization of the egg until birth is called? Gestation
When one of the millions of sperm joins the egg to combine DNA and form a Zygote is called? Fertilization
Fertilization usually takes place in the? Fallopian tubes
A change or maturation of the sperm that takes place as it is swimming through the uterus and fallopian tubes is called? Capacitation
During fertilization the acrosome becomes more? Fragile
Since the acrosome is more fragile this allows the acrosome to burst and do what to the egg? Digest the egg membrane
Once a perm enters the egg the membrane changes to ______ another sperm from entering? Block
The diploid receives _ from mom and _ from dad for a total of _ chromosomes? 23, 23, 46
There are how many pairs of autosomes given to the diploid during fertilization? 22 pairs
During fertilization there is only one pair of sex chromosomes given __ for females __ for males? XX females XY males
Mitotic dividing of the zygote is called? Cleavage
The point when the mass become hollow is called? Blastocyst
The hollow space that is filled with fluid? Blastocoele
The trophoblast is the _______ layer of cells? Outer
The inner layer of cells is called? Innermass
The bonding of zygote to the uterine wall 5-8 days after fertilization is called? Implantation
Embryonic membrane that froms the fetal portion of the placenta is called the? Chorion
The chorion originates as the what? Omnion
The innermass is made up of what? Stem cells
The developing human from implantation to the 8th week is called the? Embryo
The plate of cells within the blastocyst is called? Embryonic disc
Germ layers form after 14 days how many layers will be formed? 3
Outer epidermis and its derivcatives, nervous system, lens, cornea, internal ear are all created in this layer? Ectoderm
Middle dermis, bone, cartilage, muscle, kidneys, blood are all formed in this layer? Mesoderm
Inner GI mucosa, respiratory mucosa, liver, thyroid and pancreas are all formed in this layer? Endoderm
These membranes are distinguished from the embryo at 20 days what are they called? Embryonic membranes
This sac gives rise to the first blood cells and sex stem cells what is it called? Yolk sac
The yolk sac later becomes part of the what? Umbilical cord
The thin membrane that surrounds the embryo is called? Amnion
The amnion contains a fluid called what? Amniotic fluid
The amniotic fluid contains what? Urine, sloughed off cells
Sampling of amniotic fluid is called? Amniocentesis
What is the trophoblast called as it develops? Chorion
The projections from the chorion into the endometrium that become the fetal part of the placenta are called? Chorionic Villi
At how many weeks does the embryo take form with the head and limbs and beating heart? 4-5 weeks
At what week are the organ systems established in the embryo? 8 weeks
Fetal growth occurs during what weeks? 9-40th
The maternal and fetal tissue structure that separates fetal and maternal blood is called? The placenta
The placenta is formed by how many weeks? 12
What size is the placenta? 7 inch and flat
The placenta produces hormones to maintain pregnancy what hormones are these? Human chorionic gonadotropin
hCG is excreted in urine for what type of test results? Pregnancy tests
Pregnancy tests are more accurate with? Testing blood
What inhibits uterine contractions? Relaxin
Relaxin also permits ________ of the pubic symphysis and ligaments? Stretching
The placenta being birthed after the fetus is called? Afterbirth
What connects the fetus to the placenta? Umbilical cord
The umbilical cord transfers blood _____ and _______? back and fourth
There are 2 arteries and they carry blood ______ from the fetus and 1 vein that carries blood _______ the fetus? away and toward
Another name for birth is? Parturition
The sequence of events that occur during birth is called? Labor
What stage of labor are you in if you are dilating and effacing, the amniotic sac breaks, the mucus plug is released? First stage
What stage of labor is the delivery of the infant? Second stage
What stage of labor is the delivery of the placenta? Third stage
As soon as birth occurs the fetus is now called an? Infant
The cord is clamped, nose and mouth aspirated when are these things done? At birth
What stimulates medulla which starts respiration? CO2
Breathing promotes pulmonary circulation which closes the what? Foramen ovale
Most of our characteristics are determined or influenced by what? Genetics
If a genes information is used for something such as making a protein it is said to be? Expressed
What may occur as liver immaturity does not excrete billirubin well? jaundice
The actual physical genetic makeup is called? Genotype
The appearance of how the alleles are expressed is called? phenotype
The 2 or more possibilities for the expression of a pair of genes is called? alleles
When both alleles are the same this is called? Homozygous
When the 2 alleles are opposite this is called? Heterozygous
Dominant vs recessive genes only matter in _____________ alleles? heterozygous
The gene that is expressed of the 2 is called? Dominant
The gene that is not expressed of the 2 is called? Recessive
The recessive gene is not lost just not expressed, but can be __________ on to offspring? Passed on
A diagram to illustrate how genes are expressed is called? Punnett
The punnett gives all ___________ of expression? Possibilities
How many human genes are there? 20,000-25,000
Every gene has been mapped according to the what? Human genome project
The diseases that are a result of malfunctioning DNA are called? Genetic disease
Created by: ShanellStock