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Exam 4 HIST 1020

Study guide for world history 2 exam 4

Who was Martin Luther? How did his Ninety-five Theses contribute to the Protestant Reformation? He was a young professor of sacred scripture. He opened the eyes of the people when he wrote the Ninety- Five Theses, to the wrong doings of the Catholic Church.
What were the major features of Luther’s religious ideas? How was Lutheranism different from Catholicism? Luther believed in salvation by faith. Lutheranism did away with indulgences and many other Catholic practices and focused on Salvation by faith.
How did Calvinism impact the Protestant Reformation? Calvinism started a whole new Protestant denomination, which gave the people more of a choice who became Protestants.
What factors contributed to the Catholic Reformation? They wanted to distinguish Catholic doctrines from Protestant “errors,” the council called for bishops to reside in their dioceses, and dioceses to maintain a theological seminary to train priests.
What was significant about the Council of Trent? That is where the Catholic leaders met to start the reformation, and came up with the ideas for it.
What was revolutionary about the heliocentric theory supported by Copernicus? He was the first person to discover that is was in fact the sun, not earth, was the center of the universe.
What technological advance made the work The Starry Messenger possible? How did this impact scientific knowledge of the universe? The use of the telescope. I contradicted prior beliefs about the universe, but also gave them evidence to back up his theory
What was the Long Parliament? How did it contribute to the English Civil War? It was a Parliament that that met for an unusually long 13 years. They did not support the king and ended up executing him eventually
How did Oliver Cromwell affect the outcome of the English Civil War? What role did he play after the war? He was a brilliant General for the Parliamentarians who ended up ruling the country after the war.
How did the Glorious Revolution reflect the major changes in England as a result of the Civil War? It was bloodless, but it also showed that Parliament would put up with nothing
What was some of the major effects of the expanded iron industry during the early 17th century? The British were then able to produce more cannons, and it improved warfare for everyone
What was the Catholic League? What role did it play in the French Wars of Religion? It was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. They were a radical religious order who massacred countless Huguenots (Protestants) in the streets of Paris on Saint Bartholomew’s Day.
How was the Edict of Nantes a product of the Wars of Religion? It was Henry IV’s chance to unite the country that was divided by the Wars of Religion. Equal rights for all
What was the Fronde? How did the Fronde impact Louis XIV later in how he limited the power of the French nobility? The Fronde was a Civil War in France between the nobles and the parlements. He made it to where he could choose who could have power, and he could take it away whenever he wanted
17. What were some of the major exchanges of the Columbian Exchange? How did it impact the Old and New World? Diseases such as; smallpox, dysentery, syphilis, animals such as; cattle, horses, parrots, llama’s, guinea pigs, and crops such as; wheat, sugar cane, coconut trees, bananas, coffee, potatoes, Maniac, Maize, and Cacao.
How did encomienda system function? Who were the people who profited most from this system? It was the process of using Native Americans as slaves to work silver mines. The nobilities or other leaders
How did Bartolome de Las Casas help end the endcomienda syatem? He became first bishop of Chiapas, and fought for Native freedom and signed the New Laws of 1542
How was Spanish colonial government structured? The Spanish Vice-Roys ruled the colonies and they had lower officials that were staggered in power
How did the silver strikes at Potosi impact Spain and the colonies? Potosí becomes a key settlement and the population booms, and gained a lot of land through this
How did haciendas create colonial wealth? They were able to keep money in the New World by being like the Spanish crown in the New World. They provided many services that otherwise would have been more difficult to find
How did the Spanish regulate the colonial economy? The colonies depended on mineral and agricultural exports
What was the society of castas? How did it reflect new social hierarchies in the colonies? It was the demarcation of who was who. It was able to differentiate and give classes to everyone
What was the difference between peninsulares and creoles? What was the significance of the difference? Peninsuarles where Europeans in the New World who were born in Spain or Portugal. Creoles were Europeans born in the New World. It established a set of who started out in Europe of the New World
What was the major difference in how Europeans viewed slave raids and how Africans viewed the raids? Africans viewed it as a private source of wealth and fought for land for slaves, while the Europeans just wanted the slaves
What was the Middle Passage? How and why did it provide a common experience for all African slaves transported to the colonies? It was the sea trip of the slaves from Africa to America. They all could bond over the suffering that occurred on the transportation
Who were the coureurs de bois? What role did they have in French colonization? They were fur traders. They established relations with the natives immediately to help them have easy access to everything
How did the devshirme system operate? They were Christian children who were taken at birth to become Janissary soldiers, and senior military commanders
How did the Ottomans finally take Constantinople? They hit the walls with cannon fire, drug warships over a hill and dropped them in the harbor to get around its sea defenses, and used it’s infantry
What were some of the major features of Ottoman civilization under the reign of Suleiman? They had a many great architectural qualities
Who was the “Hidden Imam?” How was Shi’ism divided by differing views of the “Hidden Imam? He was the twelfth descendant of Ali. Some thought that they should wait for his return, while others wanted to use power in his name.
36. How did the marriage of Akbar symbolize a desire for reconciliation between Muslims and Hindus? His child would have both Indian and Muslim ties, and he did not want them to be enemy’s
How did the Omani expansion into Africa impact language and cultural development? They began to mix different languages which eventually led to the rise and spread of the Swahili language, and they also began to intermarry with other races, which gave rise to a mixed population. There was also a spread of Islam through this expansion.
What was Ming Despotism? It did away with the traditional Checks and Balances, and established a rule that was only run by the emperor with no administrators or advisors
What role did the cult of widowhood have on Ming Society? How was widow chastity promoted? If a woman’s husband died before she was 30, and if she stayed alone for 20 years she would be regarded highly in the society
How did Wang Yangming impact philosophy during the Ming Dynasty? He thought that people were good and everyone had good in them
What was the Dynastic Cycle? Dynasty’s started out good and ended up being bad and lazy.
What were some of the internal and external factors that divided the Ming Dynasty government in the early 17th century? External threats were; raiders raided many northern villages, Manchu peoples hekp rebels militarily, subdue country and state, internal threats were; many rebellions occurred
How and why did Matteo Ricci gain a position of influence in the Chinese administration? He was able to teach the Chinese many new ideas from Europe, and he also spread Catholicism
How did the Qing struggle to overcome their status as ethnic minorities? What changes did they make in creating a new Chinese culture? They took away the racial component of being Chinese and made everyone Chinese through culture
How did the village lecture system incorporate rural people into a more general political culture? It got everyone on the same page, metaphorically speaking, to where everyone was linked through Confucianism
How did the Canton Trading System reflect the tributary system? China would only accept Silver from other nations for trade, and it made everyone respect each other
47. What was the Rites Controversy? What impact did it have on missionary influence in China? The fact that the Jesuits were letting the Chinese still use ancestor worship after becoming Jesuits. It took away most of the missionary influence
What did the Joei Code establish? Who did it impact the most? It established how the samurai were regulated. It defined the feudal system
What was the significance of the Onin War? It had to do with the trouble of succession, territorial problems, and officials had gained too much power
What are some of the major features of the tea ceremony? How was the tea ceremony an important cultural practice? Tatami; straw mats that are on the floor when they drink the coffee. Shoji; are restricts, Hideyoshi; was the unifier of Japan. Sen io Rikyu was the tea ceremony leader
What was the impact of the Great Sword Hunt? It made it to where only Samurai could own swords
How was Japan unified? Who were the major people involved? Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu unified Japan. They divided power by creating many states. Toyotomi Hideyoshi issued the great Sword Hunt
How did the Japanese alter Chinese Confucian ideas to better fit their social classes? They combined Shinto and Buddhism, and used Confucianism. They had Samurai, Peasants, Artisans, and Merchants
How did Japanese cities develop? How did the three major cities of Tokugawa Japan reflect the process of urban development? They developed around Castles, temples, and trade centers. Osaka was Japan’s commercial trade center, Kyoto was where the capital was, and Edo was where the Shogunate’s power was based
How did kabuki theatre change during the Tokugawa period? They turned it into a drag show because too many fights were breaking out over the women
What was bunraku theatre? How was it different from kabuki? It was a puppet theater
How did Ukiyo-e prints represent the new urban culture of the Tokugawa period? It was a different form of art that showed the simplicity of the Japanese
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