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BIO 220 Final Exam 3

The amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration Tidal Volume
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ____ Vital Capacity
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________ and _______ Medulla and Pons
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________ Diffusion
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood? Bicarbonate ions in plasma
Know the gross anatomy of both lungs Right=3 lobes Left=2 lobes and cardiac notch
Know role of the pleura Reduces friction during breathing
provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange Alveoli
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________ Alveolar wall+capillary wall=basement membrane
Factors that promote oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin include Pressure of O2 (PO2), temp, pH of blood, pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), concentraions of PBG
The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________ Concentration of O2 and or total atmospheric pressure lower at higher altitudes
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ______ Ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Components of Interstitial fluid High: sodium, chloride, calcium and bicarbonate Low: Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, bicarbonate
Components of Blood plasma High: sodium, chloride, calcium and bicarbonate Low: Potassium, magnesium, phosphate, bicarbonate Less chloride
Components of Intracellular fluid High: potassium, magnesium, phosphate and sulfate Low: Sodium, chloride and bicarbonate
The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of _______ ions Sodium
The main physiological cause of Respiratory acidosis is ____________ failure of ventilation
Name the three chemical buffer systems Bicarbonate, phosphate, plasma proteins
Chlamydia trachmomatis bacteria, most common bacterial STI Chlamydia
human papillomavirus (HPV) 2nd most common STI Genital warts
Treponema pallidum Syphilis
human herpes virus type 2 – most difficult to control Genital herpes
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (“the clap”) Gonorrhea
Sperm enhanced and membrane of egg fragile Capacitation
Blastula fuses to uterine wall Implantation
Establishing 3 primary germ layers Gastrulation
Morula --> Blastocyst Cleavage
The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the ________week Eighth
The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the _________ Amnion
In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the lungs is by way of the __________ Foramen ovale
It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until they undergo _______ Capacitation
During the first trimester ________ produces Estrogen and Progesterone Corpus luteum
The two enzymes that act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate are ___________ and ________ Protease, hyaloronidase
Name the embryonic germ layers Ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
The hormone which maintains the viability of the corpus luteum is _______ Human chorianic gonadotropin (HCG)
The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________ Mesenteries
The walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen Muscoa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa
Name the factors that help create the stomach mucosal barrier Thick bicarbonate coating, tight junctions and quick replacement of cells
137. The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________ Lamina propria
This hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile Cholestokinin
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach? Parietal cells
Pepsinogen is secreted by the ________ Chief cells
Name the components of the renal corpuscle Glomerulus – cluster of capillaries in nephron of kidney; makes filtrate and Bowman’s capsule – surrounds glomerulus
The ____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney Arcuate
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________ regulating rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic BP
The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________ Glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)
Name the components of The filtration membrane endothelium, basement membrane, podocytes
The macula densa cells respond to _______ changes in the solute content of the filtrate
The fluid in the Bowman's capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________ plasma protein
Why does Alcohol acts as a diuretic? inhibits release of ADH
Name The functions of angiotensin II constrict artioles and increase BP
A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is _____ diabetes insipidus
Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body nephron->collecting duct->minor calyx->major calyx->ureter->urethra
The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the _______ glomerular hydrostatic pressure (HPg)
If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean? normally all glucose if reabsorbed
increased levels of potassium Hyperkalemia
increased levels of magnesium Hypermagnesemia
Increased levels of sodium Hypernatremia
Decreased levels of calcium Hypocalcemia
Decreased levels of sodium Hyponatremia
Aldosterone regulated ______ and ______ in an antagonistic fashion Sodium and potassium
The two organs that function as the most important physiological buffer systems are _____, _____ Kidneys and lungs
The three methods for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood are chemical buffer systems, repsiratory changes and renal mechanism (urinary mechanism)
Created by: NCBuckeye11



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