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NMBH Review Cards

Review Flashcards

QuestionAnswer
The total number of people divided by the total land area Arithmetic Density
The cell phone was developed in the United States, but its mass appeal has caused it to _________ world-wide, where many families in less developed nations have never had a house phone but they have purchased a cell phone Diffuse
The arrangement of something across the Earth’s surface Distribution
Computer system that analyzes and compares geographic information by making it possible to layer maps of differt information to see patterns. GIS
___________ in cars help you find your destination by pinpointing your exact location on the earth through satellites then explaining the best way to get from that place to the next. GPS
The Land Ordinance of 1785 split much of the Western United States into square parcels of land to easily sell these plots to settlers, the geometric arrangements shows a ____________ of settlement that is still visible today. Pattern
The total number of people divided by land that is able to be farmed. Physiological Density
Satellites used in _________ help to track and monitor changes that occur on the surface of the earth, such as weather phenomenon. Remote Sensing
Mexico City is a great example of ___________ because the modern skyscrapers of today are built over top of Aztec Ruins. Sequent Occupance
Describing a location by using the physical features of that area. Site
Describing a location by using its proximity to other locations. Situation
Phenomenon that explains how our world seems smaller because it is easier to travel from one place to another as a result of technology Space Time Compression
The name given to a place on the Earth. Toponym
When objects are found close together Clustered
When objects are found far away from each other. Dispersed
Phenomenon that explains how the farther a person gets from the hearth of their culture the less likely they are to stay in touch with its beliefs. Distance Decay
Phenomenon that explains how the farther someone is from something else, the less likely they will interact because of the cost and time it takes to do so. Friction of Distance
The process of converting the 3D earth onto a flat map. Projection
The physical impression people leave on the earth such as buildings, bridges, monuments, etc. Cultural Landscape
Describing a places location using longitude and latitude measurements Absolute Location
Measured by the ease at which it is to reach other places from another. Accessibility
Science of map making Cartography
Overcoming their cultural and physical barriers, Iraq and Iran have increased their ____________ through new active trading. Connectivity
YouTube videos often spread through ___________ since they can go from 1 hit to millions within days. Contagious Diffusion
Theory that states that our culture and lifestyle is dictated by our physical environment. Environmental Determinism
The spread of an idea or feature from one place to another where it becomes more and more popular overtime, like a snowball rolling down a hill. Expansion Diffusion
The United States of America is considered a ___________ because everyone lives within set boundaries demarking it from other areas. Formal Region
The Sun New's ___________ is the grand strand because the closer you get to Charleston, the more likely people will read the Charleston Gazette instead. Functional Region
The process by which something local becomes a global phenomenon. Globalization
The location where something originates. Hearth
Books that are apart of Oprah Winfrey's Book Club spread through __________ since Oprah reads the book first, then others read it because of her respected recommendation. Hierarchical Diffusion
Airports are a great example of a _________ because no one airport is the beginning, each has its own set places it serves, connecting to the bigger system of travel. Networks
The ability of people in Iceland to grow bananas in geothermal greenhouses is an example of __________. Possibilism
The ____________ of my house is 1 mile East of North Myrtle Beach High School. Relative location
The movement of something from one place to another through the physical migration of people. Relocation Diffusion
The relationship between an object on the earth and its representation on a map. Scale
The gap between objects Space
As a result of ___________, the same monotheistic God spread into the Islamic faith, but other aspects of Judaism and Christianity were not adopted. Stimulus Diffusion
The South of the US is an example of a ___________ because it is based on a cultural identity that does not have a clear demarcation Vernacular Region
This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, Carry Capacity
The 65 and older _________, or age group, is considered the old-age dependency group. Cohort
Scientific study of population characteristics Demography
India’s population has continued to grow, despite policies which encourage women to have less children, because their large youth population is entering child bearing years, representing the concept of __________. Demographic Momentum
5 Stages of population growth that go from Low Growth to Negative Growth and also shows the change from an LDC to an MDC in terms of population growth. Demographic Transition Model
The number of people who are too old or too young to work compared to people in their productive years. (0-14, 65+) Dependency Ratio
Shows the spread of birth control methods around the world. Diffusion of Fertility Control
The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the increase (or decrease) in a population. The formula is found by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births plus or minus net migration. Demographic Equation
The proportion of earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on. Ecumene
Despite an improvement in health in 2nd stage of the __________, Cholera still impacts people within this stage, raising death rates, because of problems with access to clean water. Epidemiological Transition
average number of children a woman will have during her child bearing years (15-49) Fertility
The annual number of deaths of infants, less than one year of age, compared with total live births. Infant Mortality Rate
Was one of the first to argue that the world’s rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food population. Thomas Malthus
Occurred in the 1950’s when the medical technologies of Europe and N America (Core) reached the peripheral areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America moving them into stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model Medical Revolution
There are two useful ways to measure ______; infant mortality rate and life expectancy. The IMR reflect a country’s health care system and life expectancy measures the average number of years a baby can expect to live. Mortality
The ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; it is expressed as number of birth in a year to every 1000 people alive in the society. (2 words) Natality or Crude Birth Rate
This individual would say our population is growing exponentially faster than many of our resources, fuel, clean air, etc. Neo-Malthusian
relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources. Only considered overpopulated with a population has grown passed available resources Overpopulation
map that displays the size of countries based on population not land area Population Cartogram
The Industrial Revolution, Medical Revolution, and men returning from WWII, are all considered times where areas experienced __________, or abrupt increases in birth rates. Population Explosion
predicts the future population of an area or the world. Helps predict future problems with population such as overpopulation or under population of a certain race or ethnicity. Population projection
population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph. Shape is determined primarily by crude birth rate. Shows age distribution and sex ratio. Population Pyramid
government policies that encourage child birth such as tax breaks and flexible work hours Pronatalist Policies
the percentage by which a population grows in a year. (CBR-CDR ) /10 Exluding Migration Natural Increase Rate
number of males per hundred females in the population. Men have higher death rates but also higher birth rates. Sex Ratio
In India the ____________ is usually high, similar to the US, for upper caste people in the cities, but in rural areas people have little possessions and access to many resources. Standard of Living
Slash and Burn agriculture is considered to have the most __________ for rainforest environments because it provides time for forests to grow back before a new plot of land is cut and burned for planting. Sustainability
it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region’s population. Means there is not enough people to support the local economic system. Underpopulation
Places that have __________ are considered to have reached replacement fertility because they are only having enough children to replace the parent generation, stabilizing their growth rate. Zero Population Growth
Going to the store and back home is an example of ___________mobility. Circulation
Net-in migration Absorption
Net-out Migration Dispersion
The Dakotas have a large population of Lutheran Christians because one group moved from Germany in the late 1800’s and then wrote home, encouraging others to take advantage of the free land and opportunities, expressing the concept of ___________. Chain Migration
Type of migration where people leave because of war, natural disaster, and government. Forced Migration
Immigrants usually from the Middle East, Asia, and Africa who receive permits to fill low skilled jobs in Europe. Workers can live permanently in Europe but they and their children, regardless of where they were born, are not given citizenship Guest Workers
limitations placed on the maximum number of people who can enter a country Quota Laws
Permanent movement within a particular country. Internal Migration
The Panama Canal is a/an ___________ for anyone trying to easily move, by boat, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Intervening Opportunity
Permanent movement from one region of the country to another. Interregional Migration
Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area. Rural to urban Migration
A person who is forced from their home due to political, ethnic, and or religious persecution and feel they cannot safely return Refugee
Factors that induce people to leave old residence and move to new locations. Push-Pull Factors
When you adapt only 1 or a few customs of a new place that will be advantageous while keeping the rest of your own Acculturation
The process by which an ethnic culture is taken over by the dominant popular culture Assimilation
Several local restaurants in Nicaragua have closed because they could not compete with the McDonalds and other American restaurants in the area, representing the __________. Cultural Core/Periphery Pattern
The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct tradition. Culture
If a group of people find cell phones to be particularly helpful in maintaining their beliefs, it is likely the _________ will be extremely swift. Innovation Adaptation
Several years ago Wal-mart opened its first branch in Germany; however the company failed miserably because its business practices of long hours and its products did not match German culture. This represents the concept of _________. Maladaptive Diffusion
the faithfulness to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual nature. Religion
Many Hindu’s still embrace ________ by believing in many gods, but they will join a devotional cult; which centers daily worship on the main god of his/her choice. Polytheism
A religion with a rather concentrated distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location where its adherents are located. Ethnic Religion
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and life. Animism
The third of the world’s major universalizing religions. It has 365 million adherents especially in China and Southeast Asia. Buddhism
During WWII, large metal birds dropped modern goods onto our lands and into our seas. Outsiders say they were planes, but we know it was our ancestors. The worship of these goods and birds make people call us the ___________. Cargo Cult Pilgramage
is a monotheistic religion that is the most popular and widespread religion in the world. Christianity
Language that is created by mixing a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the area Creole Language
The ancestors of my belief system were forced to move from the North Eastern United States to Utah due to persecution. I practice __________. Mormonism
a complex system of moral, social, political, and religious thought. Has and continues to affect Chinese Civilization tremendously. Confucianism
Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion. Found in most all religions today. Fundamentalism
customs often practiced by small, rural, and homogenous (uniform) peoples. Folk Culture
The Ganges River in India has become a sacred place for _________, the largest ethnic religion in the world. Hinduism
after this life you will come back in another life either as a plant, animal, or a human life. So basically what you do in this life will affect what your next life is like. Reincarnation
I live in Indonesia and believe Muhammad is the prophet of God. This makes me an adherent of ________. Islam
Regional boundaries between word-usage. Isogloss
A Language surrounded by other languages that share no ancestry with that language Isolate
The ______ is the 5th pillar of Islam which says that once in a Muslim’s life, he or she must take a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. Hajj
it is the legal framework within which public and some private aspects of life are regulated for those living in a legal system based on Muslim principles. Sharia Law
religion and philosophy originating in ancient India. Stresses spiritual independence and equality of all life. Jainism
My religion became the basic belief system for the two most practiced religions in the world today. I believe in _________. Judaism
Nigeria consistently struggles of violence as a result of its strict ________, with Muslims dominating the North and Christians in control of the South. Interfaith Boundaries
The certain areas where people have commonly been buried. Landscapes of the Dead
Languages created and used for trade Lingua Franca
A global religion that appeals to all people, wherever they may live in the world, There are three religions that practice this they are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. To proselytize is to try to convert another person to your religion. Universalizing Religion
Certain habits shared by large, heterogeneous (mixed) societies despite personal differences; originate in the Core Areas Popular Culture
The ________ have always been dependent upon the beliefs of a particular religion. For example, Buddhists create Pagodas, not as houses of communal worship like Christianity, but as places to store and commemorate the relics of Buddha. Religious Architectural Styles
This is where most religions are born. Religious Cultural Hearth
place where religious figures and congregations meet to perform religious ceremonies. Sacred Space
I believe our laws should have a strong separation between church and state, therefore I believe in ________. Secularism
range of traditional beliefs and practices that claim the ability to cure, heal, and cause pain to people. Shamanism
Although the religion is not important politically, I still follow _________, my native Japanese religion. Shintoism
I live in India and follow a guru, believing in one God. I practice _________. Sikhism
restriction on behavior based on social customs and environment Taboo
The desire for The Republic of Ireland to annex Northern Ireland because of their shared culture and history is an example of __________. Irredentism
After about 200 miles from any county, the ocean becomes a part of the _____________ where no person or state has complete control. Global Commons
What do you call a state that lies between 2 more powerful and hostile states? Buffer State
The breakup of Yugoslavia into six new nations is BEST considered an example of Balkanization
In Texas legislature was accused of __________ when they attempted to split the Hispanic vote along the Southern Boarder in order to ensure two Republican districts in this area. Gerrymander
The Sudan is a great example of ____________ because after colonial rule 2 rival groups were left to live within the same political unit. Superimposed Boundaries
The miles of fencing, border control officers, and patrols are a part of the exclusionary _____________ of the Mexico-US border. Border Landscape
Force or process that causes disunity within a country Centrifugal
During a brief period during the 19th century Texas was an independent country, and then is was incorporated into the United States. This process is known as _____________. Annexation
The Law of the Sea outlined the ______________, establishing territory rights to 14 miles into the Ocean and resource rights to 200 miles. Exclusive Economic Zone
the different voting districts that make up local, state, and national regions. Electoral Regions
The ____________ of India was violent despite Gandhi’s devotion to Civil Disobedience. Although the violence was mostly committed by the British, Indians also committed violent acts against the royal police until gaining independence after WWII. Decolonization
The United States overall good economic development is __________ because it instills confidence in the governmental system and a sense of national pride despite ethnic differences. Centripetal
What term refers to studying how geography, history, and social sciences affect international politics? Geopolitics
After independence, many Eastern European countries went through the process of ___________, decentralizing their governments, to separate themselves from the Soviet Union. Devolution
The __________ marked what part of Africa European countries could colonize to end decades of scrambling to control scattered pieces of the continent. Conference of Berlin
Of the ethnicities in the US only the various Native American tribes are considered a _________ because they all have similar goals and legal recognition within the government. Nationality
Country with more than one nationality Multi-national state
The European Union can be considered a ___________ because these sovereign states all share a common currency and have special rules regarding trade, travel, and economic development. Confederation
This is the only continent with no permanent residents. Antarctica
3 or more countries join forces to achieve a common goal. Supranationalism
a country which is geographically separated from the main part by surrounding alien territory Exclave
political philosophy in which a group or body of members are bound together with a Federal
government where the bulk of the power lies with a central national government, good for small states and nation-states who do not have a large area or many different viewpoints to take into consideration. Unitary
What term refers to the region between Saudi Arabia and its neighbors where neither country has complete control of the area? Frontier
The process by which a country settles in sparsely populated parts of the world, establishing political and economic control. Colonialism
a political unit with defined boundaries where the majority of the people share common cultural traits and sense of identity. Nation-state
The US’s Bread Basket is in its ___________, far away from either of its coastlines. Heartland
What do you call a region controlled by a city that is independent from other cities? city-state
symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state. An example would be Brasília. Forward Capital
the influence of Communists, then more would follow. Was used by successive United States administrations during the Cold War. Domino Theory
lines that are drawn between political units before the area becomes well populated Antecedent Boundaries
it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority. Apartheid
a group of people who share cultural traditions of a particular homeland. These groups are immune to globalization because they have no use to spread worldwide, they simply will fight to control the area that is important to them. Ethnicity
state that contains multiple ethnicities which all contribute to form one nationality Multi-ethnic state
Created after populated and the cultural landscape is developed, often coincide with religions or other cultural distinctions (2 terms) Subsequent or Consequent Boundaries
Refers to a region in the world that is experiencing extreme instability and is in danger of going through balkanization Shatter Belt
People or societies that are farmers promoting agricultural interests. These are rural areas. Agrarian
Commercial agriculture characterized by integrating different steps in the food-processing industry. These are large corporations that control planting to selling. Agribusiness
Area of dairy farming that surrounds urban areas. These farms are usually close to cities to avoid spoilage during transportation. Milk Shed
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for subsistence or economic gain. Agriculture
___________ provided the first farmers with a steady form of fertilizer, and now is a commercial source of meat and meat byproducts such as cheese Animal Domestication
Commercially raising sea animals in enclosures. Aquaculture
During the __________ farmers began playing with new technologies like injecting hormones or different types of genes into plants and animals to produce fatter, larger, products, or crops that were resistant to pests like flies, etc. Biorevolution
process by which land that was once profitable for farming has become dry and exhausted due to excessive population growth requiring overcultivation, animal grazing, and tree cutting. Desertification
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm. -Allowed people to move away from farms- fueled industrial revolution Commercial Agriculture
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil. Takes up large areas of land but keeps land usable for future generations Crop Rotation
LDCs are no longer responsible for paying off their financial responsibilities if they preserve the natural landscape Debt for Nature Swap
Harvesting twice a year from the same land double cropping
Type of agriculture that requires a large amount of land but usually little labor such as grain and livestock farming in mid-latitude regions Extensive Agriculture
a plot of land on which livestock are fattened for market Feedlot
Around 8000 B.C. when humans first domesticated plants and animals First Agricultural Revolution
series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one, which in turn feeds a still larger one, etc. Food Chain
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population. Green Revolution
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasibly yield from a parcel of land. Popular in East, South, and Southeast Asia Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
Tillage between rows of crops of plants. Popular method of organic farming to prevent stepping on plants Intertillage
commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area. Practiced is semi-arid or arid land, where vegetation is too sparse or the soil to too poor to support crops. Livestock Ranching
The small scale production of fruits, vegetables, and flowers as cash crops sold Market Gardening
Parts of Southern Spain are known for their wines and olive oil because they practice _____________, growing fruits and vegetables that thrive in this environment Mediterranean Agriculture
Subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals. Often found in dry regions where farming would be difficult. Nomadic Herding/pastoralism
Precursor to Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, that allowed a shift in work force beyond subsistence farming to allow labor to work in factories. Second Agricultural Revolution
____________ is mostly found in rainforest regions. People slash and burn parts of the forest for agriculture, sustaining the rainforest for future generations Shifting Cultivation
Individuals who live in urban areas a great distance from their land and drive to the country to care for their crops and livestock. Suitcase Farm
social trap that involves a conflict over resources between interests and the common good. Tragedy of the commons
pastoral practice of seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pasture areas. Transhumance
Commercial gardening and fruit farming. Predominant in Southeastern U.S.A, because of the long growing season and humid climate, accessibility to large markets of the NE. Uses mechanization. Truck Farming
According to _________, commercial farmers choose their crop based on 2 factors, cost of land and transportation, picking which crop would be the most profitable in a ring like pattern. Von Thunen
Found in the North Eastern part of the US, this is a type of market gardening where people choose to grow expensive crops like asparagus, strawberries, and mushrooms. This is often undertaken by farmers who are no longer dairy farming in this area. Specialty Farming
farmers use practices that are sensitive to the environment such as using less heavy energy draining equipment and chemicals, as well integrating crops and livestock onto one farm to utilize the benefits of natural fertilizers and food for the animals Sustainable Agriculture
Form of commercial farming found predominantly in the LDCs where European or North American Companies own the large farms that are worked by local labor that live on the farm during planting and harvesting. Plantation Farming
India used the ____________ by limiting the number of transnational corporations that owned businesses in their county and placing high taxes on imported goods to promote the purchasing of Indian product. Their goal was to make all sectors grow. (2 terms) Balanced Growth or Self-Sufficiency Model of Development
Countries where their people have well over their daily allotted amounts of these are most likely MDCs, less than are LDCs. Calorie Consumption
Pattern of distribution of MDCs and LDCs. The ______________ explains that MDC are the world's markets and mostly lie in the Northern Hemisphere. LDCs are the world's producers and mostly lie in the Southern Hemisphere. Core Periphery Model
A similarity for ________________ could be acculturation. Cultural Convergence
According to the _____________The ratio of the number of people under 15 or over 64 to the number in the labor force is usually higher in LDCs. Dependency Theory
The improvement in material conditions of a place as a result of diffusion of technology and knowledge Development
The high____________ of MDCs was not a problem until now because LDCs are developing and requiring more oil and electric than before. Energy Consumption
Investment in the economies of LDCs by transnational corporations based in MDCs Foreign Direct Investment
Costa Rica is a leader in _____________, where visitors will stay is rainforest cabanas rather than five star resorts in busy urban areas. Ecotourism
Total value of goods and services produced in a year in a given country Gross Domestic Product
Encourages fair wages, unionization, and environmental and safety standards for workers in the LDCs. Fair Trade
Cumulative index of development, which takes into account economic, social and demographic factors, using GDP, literacy and education, and life expectancy Human Development Index
compares level of development of women to that of men by using measures such as literacy rates, GDP per capita, and heath care to so show standard of living discrepancies. Gender Related Development Index
compares the ability of women and men to to participate in economic and political decision making by looking at percentage of women in top professional and political roles Gender Empowerment Measure
______________ relates to the idea that MDCs continue to control the economic fate of LDCs by funding their development either through the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, or Transnational Corporations, keeping wages low and development limited. Neocolonialism
NAFTA follows the _____________ believing that the best way for LDCs to develop is through utilizing their natural resources and opening their countries to transnational corporations. International Trade Model Of Development
To better compare MDCs to LDCs in terms of income, this measure takes into account price differences between countries. Purchasing Power Parity
Agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico to limit and abolish barriers to trade between these three countries. Has lead to industrial growth in Mexico. North American Free Trade Association
Under ___________, any new capabilities discovered through a federal grant must be made available to everyone, so all can benefit from this new information, improving business in all sectors of the economy. Technology Transfer
According to __________, price and demand for land increases the closer you get to the main city. Bid Rent Theory
Industrial arrangement of machines, equipment, and workers for a continuous flow of work to piece together the final product (AKA assembly line operations), each movement of material is made as simple and short as possible Fordism
Benefits or advantages (savings, cost reductions, etc.) resulting from the spatial clustering of activities and/or people Agglomeration Economies
Linear theory of development that countries go through a common pattern of structural change once they decide to trade internationally to increase revenue. Rostow’s “Stages of Growth” Model
Important US product for packaging, transportation, and construction. Shows the importance of locating your factory close to cheap energy. Aluminum Industry
According to the ___________, industry’s primary concerns are the cost of transportation. Weber Model
Industry whose final product weighs less than the inputs Bulk-Reducing Industry
Industry whose final product weighs more than the inputs Bulk-gaining Industry
States people cannot be forces to join a union as a condition of employment Right to Work Laws
Factories that are located in Mexico, near the US border to take advantage of the cheap labor in Mexico and a close proximity to US markets Maquiladora
Manufacturer controls every aspect of production Vertical Integration
Turns certain parts of production over to independent suppliers in order to take advantage of optimal locations for certain industries in terms of labor costs, education necessary, and proximity to mar Outsourcing
A process by which real estate agents convince white owners to sell their houses is Blockbusting
By analyzing these 5,000 people size neighborhoods, governments and private businesses can see patterns of ethnicity and wealth. Census Tract
A synonym of a functional region is a ___________. Hinterland
What term is used for the trading centers of old times which often became the world cities of the ancient world? Entrepot
All MDCs show the ________ in all or most of their cities, showing that services are well distributed throughout the country. Rank-size Rule
The ________ shows the patter of different types of urban activities, maintaining that different types of services and living conditions move outward in a circular pattern from the downtown area. Concentric Zone Model
The ________ explains how far people will travel and the type of people necessary to sustain a type of service. It is constructed using interlocking and overlapping hexagons. Central Place Theory
_________ has lead to a change in the type of activities and architecture in the inner cities. Governments are “greening” these areas, combining recreational and retail services together. Urban Renewel
The __________ of the US shows that the largest job growth has been in the tertiary sector since 1975. Employment Structure
Revitalization projects have caused a ___________ of downtown areas that originally housed low income families, but now young urban professionals are moving in. Gentrification
Stands for central business district, location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there) CBD
Also known as “Back Office Jobs” these are businesses, or parts of businesses devoted to calling customers or potential customers. Call Centers
The movement of people, capital, services, and govt. into the central city (opposite of suburban sprawl, happened to cities before WWII and is happening now) Centralization’
Process of social and economic change caused by removal of industry as a country moves into the tertiary sector. Deindustrialization
A new concentration of business in suburban areas due to urban sprawl Edge City
A usually poor section of a city inhabited primarily by people of the same race, religion, or social background. Ghetto
Area of urban land that contains more than 50,000 people, a central city, and the counties where most of the people work in and/or visit the central city for many services. A group of connected MSAs creates a Megalopolis. Metropolitan Statistical Area
A temporary market that is set up every so often to bring certain types of goods and services to an area that does not have the population to support that service every day. Periodic Market
Countries where their largest city has more than twice as many people as the 2nd largest city follow this rule. Primate City Rule
The maximum distance people are willing to travel for a given service. Everyday items like groceries etc. have a short range. The range of specialty items is much longer. Range
These are shantytowns or slums that surround the central business district or the main primate city in the LDCs. These areas have few amenities and the homes are usually made out of temporary materials. Squatter Settlement
The minimum number and type of people needed to support a service, example: expensive services need a wealthy client. Large services like Major league sports teams need a large number of people to survive. Threshold
a net migration from urban to rural areas (this only happens in very developed areas in North America and Western Europe) Counterurbanization
The Toyota factory in Spartanburg would be an example of a ____________ because its products are exported all over the United States and it has spured large scale growth of other services in the Spartanburg area. Basic Industry
The Kraal of Africa use a ___________ where their dwellings surround communal grazing land for their animals, which ensures the security of their livestock from intruders. Clustered Rural Settlement
Atlanta is an example of a _____________ because, although it is not as large or important to the world as New York, it is the regional headquarters for many corporations in the Southeast. Command and Control Center City
During Westward Expansion, pioneers created _____________ in the Great Plains because the East had become crowded and they had moved without extended family, so they preffered to live isolated from their neighbors. Dispersed Rural Settlement
The economic housing structure of the ___________ is opposite to most in the United States because most of their suburbs are filled with high rise low income apartments rather than upper middle class neighborhoods. European City Model
The ____________ is distinct from the world because it contains a spine of services that extend out from a central market, which usually contains a large cathedral. Latin American City Model
According to the _____________, cities are too complex to have just one central area inwhich all services and housing surrounds. Instead, different services cluster around different parts of the city like parks are often near suburban neighborhoods. Multiple Nuclei Model
Walmart is an example of a _____________ because its consumers live within the community and it does not create large scale growth. In contrast, Walmart's move into areas that are already experiencing growth. Non-Basic Industry
The ____________ illustrates that most cities have wedges of different activities, such as upscale vs low income housing, spreading out from the CBD. In addition, industry clusters around the main transportation route. Sector Model
Detroit is the __________________ for the auto industry, specializing in the teriary side of the industry such as research, management, and development of new technologies. Specialized Producer Service Center
New York is a __________ because the World Trade Center and United Nations spread information and wealth throughout the world. World City
Created by: ahowe