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LP - Chapter 1

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 1 Vocabulary

Cartography The science of making maps
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or a trend throughout a population
Cultural Ecology Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural Landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Density The frequency with which something exists in a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance Decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth’s surface
Environmental Determinism A nineteenth- and early twentieth-century approach to the study of geography. The study of how the physical environment caused human activities
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature or a trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal Region (or uniform or homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region (nodal region) An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority to other persons or places
Mental Map An internal representation of a portion of Earth’s surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Projection The system used to transfer locations from Earth’s surface to a flat map
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Relocation Diffusion The spread of a feature or a trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote Sensing The acquisition of data about Earth’s surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods
Scale Generally, the relationship between a portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth’s surface
Site The physical character of a plain
Situation The location of a place relative to other places
Space-Time Compression The reduction in time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth’s surface
Transnational Corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
Vernacular Region (or perceptual region) An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Human Geography One of the two major divisions of geography; the spatial analysis of human population, its cultures, activities, and landscapes
Physical Geography One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spatial analysis of the structure, processes, and location of the Earth’s natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography
Spatial Perspective Observing variations in geographic phenomena across space
Spatial Distribution Physical location of geographic phenomena across space
Location Theory A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. The agricultural location theory in the von Thünen model is a leading example
Sense of Place State of mind derived through the infusion of a place with meaning and emotion by remembering important events that occurred in that place or by labeling a place with a certain character
Perception of Place Belief or ‘understanding’ about a place developed through books, movies, stories, or pictures
Time-Distance Decay The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its point of origin or source
Globalization The expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact. The process of globalization transcend state boundaries and have outcomes that vary across places and scales
Region The third theme of geography; an area on the Earth’s surface marked by a degree of formal, functional, or perceptual homogeneity of some phenomenon
Connectivity The degree of direct linkage between one particular location and other locations in a transport network
Cultural Ecology The multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and natural environment
Political Ecology An approach to studying nature-society relations that is concerned with the ways in which environmental issues both reflect, and are the result of, the political and socioeconomic contexts in which they are situated
Cultural Landscape The natural landscape as modified by human activities and bearing the imprint of a culture group or society; the built environment
Spatial Distribution The arrangement of things on the Earth’s surface; the descriptive elements of spatial distribution are density, dispersion, and pattern
Spatial Interaction The movement (e.g. of people, goods, information) between different places; an indication of interdependence between different geographic locations or areas
Environmental Determinism Stated that human behaviors are a direct result of their environment. This philosophy gave some people the justification to believe that Europeans were smarter than other peoples, because they live in a more temperate climate
Migration Diffusion The term used to describe the physical spread of people moving from one place to another
Possibilist An approach to geography favored by contemporary geographers that suggests that humans are not a product of their environment but possess skills necessary to change their environment to satisfy human needs
Spatial Interaction Concerned with how linked a place is to the outside world, this theme of geography deals mainly with the area, because how well an area is connected to the world determines its importance
Environmental Geography The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa
Natural Landscape The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities
Physical Geography The realm of geography that studies the structure, processes, distributions, and change through time of natural phenomena of the Earth’s surface
Carl Sauer Geographer who defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental unit of geographical analysis. Sauer argued that virtually no landscape has escaped alteration by human activities
Spatial Perspective An intellectual framework that looks at the particular locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is where it is, and, finally, how it is spatially relates to phenomena in other places
Accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
Complementarity The actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
Connectivity The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
Friction of Distance A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between to places
Gravity Model A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on size of their populations and their distance from each other
Time-Space Convergence The idea that the distance between some places is actually shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places
Transferability The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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