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LP - Chapter 2

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 2 Vocabulary

Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Agricultural revolution The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area
Crude Birth Rate (CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population
Dependency Ratio The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compared to the number of people active in labor force
Doubling Time The number of years needed to double a population assuming constant rate of natural increase
Ecumene The portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Epidemiologic Transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The total number of deaths in a year among infants under 1 year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live
Medical Revolution Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Improved medical practices have eliminated many of traditional causes of death in poorer countries
Natural Increase Rate (NIR) The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Overpopulation The number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Population Pyramid A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex
Total Fertility Rate (TFR) The average number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero Population Growth (ZPG) A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where natural increase rate equals zero
Expansive Population Policies Government policies that encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Eugenic Population Policies Government policies designed to favor one racial sector over others
Restrictive Population Policies Government policies designed to reduce the rate of natural increase
One-Child Policy A program established by the Chinese government in 1979 to slow population growth in China
Chronic or Degenerative Disease Generally long-lasting afflictions now more common because of higher life expectancies
Carrying Capacity The maximum population that an area can support on a continuing basis without experiencing unacceptable deterioration; for humans, the numbers supportable by an area’s known and used resources-usually agricultural ones
Demographic Equation A mathematical expression that summarizes the contribution of different demographic processes to the population change of a given area during a specified time period
Population (Demographic) Momentum The tendency for population growth to continue despite stringent family planning programs because of a relatively high concentration of people in the childbearing years
Overpopulation The lack of necessary resources to meet the needs of a population in a defined area determined by carrying capacity
J-Curve Developed by Ian Bremme, this curve maps a country based on its “openness” and “stability”. The movements of countries an both of these scales are largely dependent on their economic progress
Sustainability The saving of resources for the future generations to allow them to live at the same standard of living or higher than the population is living at today
Exponential Growth Growth that occurs when a fixed percentage of new people is added to a population each year. Exponential growth is compound because the fixed growth rate applies to an ever-increasing population
Thomas Malthus Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) - claimed that population grows at an exponential rate while food production increases arithmetically, so eventually, population growth would outpace food and production
Population Geography A division of human geography concerned with spatial variations in distributions, composition, growth, and movements of population
Baby Boom Individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. Allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility
Baby Bust Period of time during the 1960’s and 1970’s when fertility rates in the United States dropped as large numbers of women from the baby boom generation sought higher levels of education and more competitive jobs causing them to marry later in life
S-Curve Traces the cyclical movement upwards and downwards in a graph. So named for its shape as the letter “s”. Relates to the growth and decline in the natural increase
Popular AP Human Geography sets




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