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LP - Chapter 5

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Creole or Creolized Language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer’s language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Dialect A regional variety of a language distinguished by a vocabulary, spelling, and punctuation
Extinct Language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is no longer used
Ideograms The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as in the case with letters in English
Isogloss A boundary that separates regions in which different language usage predominate Language Branch
Language family A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history
Language Group A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and displays relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary
Lingua Franca A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
Literary Tradition A language that is written as well as spoken
Official Language The language adopted for use by the government for use conduct of business and publication of documents
Pidgin Language A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
Standard Language The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications
Proto-Indo-European Linguistic hypothesis proposing the existence of an ancestral Indo-European language that is the hearth of an ancient Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit languages Language Convergence
Language Divergence A process whereby new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of special interaction among speakers of the language and continued isolation eventually causes the division of the language into discrete new languages.
Renfrew Hypothesis Hypothesis proposed that three areas in and near the agricultural hearth, the Fertile Crescent, gave rise to three language families: Europe's Indo-European; North Africa and Arabian; and the languages in present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India
Conquest Theory One major theory of how Proto-Indo-European diffused into Europe which holds the early speakers of Proto-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues
Dispersal Hypothesis Hypothesis which holds that the Indo-European languages that arose from the Proto-Indo-European were first carried eastward into Southwest Asia, next around Caspian Sea, and then across the Russian-Ukrainian plains and on into the Balkans
Monolingual States Countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual States Countries in which more than one language is spoken
Toponym Place name
Standard Language The variant of a language that a county's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life
Isogloss A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
Extinct Language Language without any native speakers.
Nostratic Language believed to be the ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, the Kartvelian languages, the Uralic-Atlantic, the Dravadian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic language family
Pidgin Language When parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Creole Language A language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in place of the mother tongue
Official Language In multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
Vernacular 1) The nonstandard indigenous language or dialect of a locality. 2) Of or related to indigenous arts and architecture, such as a vernacular house. 3) Of or related to the perceptions and understandings of the general population, such a vernacular region
Dialect Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary somewhat from the parent form
Lingua Franca An extremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more-complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication
Pidgin Language Language that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language