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LP - Chapter 8

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 8 Vocabulary

City-state A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory
Compact state A state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Elongated state A state with a long, narrow shape
Federal state An internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
Fragmented state A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Frontier a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Gerrymandering Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power
Imperialism Control of territory already occupied and organized by an indigenous society
Landlocked state A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Microstate A state that encompasses a very small land area
Perforated state A state that completely surrounds another one
Prorupted state An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
Sovereignty Ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs
Unitary state An internal organization of state that places most power in the hands of central government officials
Mercantilism Associated with the promotion of commercialism and trade. A protectionist policy of European states during the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries that promoted a state’s economic position in order to maintain a favorable trade balance
Nation A tightly knit group of people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes. Such homogeneity actually prevails within very few states
State A politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by the international community. A state has a defined territory, a permanent population, a government, and is recognized by other states
Nation-State A recognized member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and occupied by a people who see themselves as a single, united nation. Most nations and states aspire to this form, but it is realized almost nowhere
Multinational State State with more than one nation within its borders
Multistate Nation Nation that stretches across borders and across states
Stateless Nation Nation that does not have a state
Colonialism Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place. Although often established and maintained through political structures, colonialism also creates unequal cultural and economic relations
Commodification The process through which something is given monetary value. Commodification occurs when a good or idea that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought and sold is turned into something that can be traded in a market economy
Core Processes that incorporate higher levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology; generate more wealth than periphery processes in the world-economy
Periphery Processes that incorporate lower levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology; and generate less wealth than core processes in the world-economy
Semi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery
Centripetal Forces that tend to unify a country – such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.
Centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country – such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
Unitary A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state
Federal A political-territorial system wherein a central government represents the states common interests – defense, foreign affairs, yet allows these various entities to make their own laws, policies, and customs in certain spheres
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Supranational Organization A venture involving three or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives. The European Union is one such organization
Antecedent boundary Boundary line established before the area in question is well populated
Enclave A small bit of foreign territory lying within a state but not under its jurisdiction
Exclave A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
Relic boundary A former boundary line that is still discernible and marked by some cultural landscape feature
Superimposed boundary A boundary line placed over and ignoring an existing cultural patterns
Geopolitics A concept a political geography that is concerned with the study of human systems, which strive to organize land spatially to fit the needs of humans
Irredentism The attempt by one country to infuse ideas of coups or separatist movements into another country
Theocracy A country where one particular religion is intertwined with the political structure
Domino Theory The idea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting a chain reaction of collapse
East/West Divide Geographic separation between the largely democratic and free market countries of Western Europe and the Americas from the communist and socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Asia
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
North/South Divide The economic division between the wealthy countries of Europe and North America, Japan, and Australia and the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman’s theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base from world conquest
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