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LP - Chapter 10

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 10 Vocabulary

Agribusiness Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations
Agriculture The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth’s surface through the cultivation of crops and the raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Commercial Agriculture Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm
Crop Rotation The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
Desertification Degradation of land, especially in semi-arid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
Double Cropping Harvesting twice a year from the same field
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
Horticulture The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Milkshed The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Pastoral Nomadism A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
Plantation A large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Shifting Cultivation A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift actively from one field to another; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period
Slash-and-Burn Agriculture Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris
Subsistence Agriculture Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer’s family
Sustainable Agriculture Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil-restoring crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizer and pesticides
Transhumance The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Truck Farming Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because “truck” was a Middle English word meaning “bartering” or the exchange of commodities
Organic agriculture Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
First Agricultural Revolution Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
Second Agricultural Revolution Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the Second Agricultural Revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Von Thünen Model Model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy. Various farming activities located in rings around the city with land cost and transportation costs as primary variables
Third Agricultural Revolution Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has at its principal orientation the development of genetically modified organisms (GMO’s)
Green Revolution Development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs
Genetically Modified Organisms Crops that carry new traits that have been inserted through advanced genetic engineering methods
Koppen climatic classification system Developed by Wladimir Koppen, a system for classifying the world’s climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
Boserup Thesis The view that population growth independently forces a conversion from extensive to intensive subsistence agriculture
Green Revolution A term suggesting the great increases in food production, primarily in subtropical areas, accomplished through the introduction of very high-yielding grain crops, particularly wheat, maize, and rice
Maximum Sustainable Yield The maximum rate at which a renewable resource can be exploited without impairing its ability to be renewed or replenished
Von Thünen Model Model developed by Johann Heinrich von Thunen (1783-1850), German economist and land owner, to explain the forces that control the prices of agricultural commodities and how those variable prices affect patterns of agricultural land utilization
Biotechnology Science that involves altering the genetic strands of agricultural products to increase productivity, biotechnology is developed mainly in science laboratories and is then tested on farm fields around the world
Environmental Modification The introduction of manmade chemicals and practices that, at times, have drastic effects on native soil and vegetation
Suitcase Farms These farms, where no one resides permanently and migrant workers provide the majority of manual labor cheaply, go against the grain of traditional farming in the United States
Third Agricultural Revolution This transformation began in the latter half of the 20th century and corresponded with exponential population growth around the world
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