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Religious: Islam

Islam Final

QuestionAnswer
Abbasids Classical Muslim dynasty ruling at Baghdad, eighth tp thirteenth centuries C.E.
Abu Bakr companion of the Prophet Muhammad and first caliph (d. 634)
Al-Ghazali great thinker (1058-1111 C.E.) who synthesized orthodox Islamic thought and sufism.
'Ali nephew and son-in-law of he Prophet Muhammad
Allah "the G-d"; Quranic designation for the one G-d.
caliph "deputy", also successor to the Prophet Muhammad as leader of Islam
Dar-al Harb "abode of warfare"
Dar al-Islam "abode of Islam"; territories of te ummah under Muslim control, whereas the rest of the world is the Dar al-Harb
Da'wah missionary activities directed toward spreading Islam
Dhikr "rememberance"; spirtual exercises in Sufism focusing the consciousness on G-d
Five Pillars required muslim rituals of serving G-d: Shahadah (confession), Salat (prayer), Zakat (alms-giving), Sawm (fasting), and Hajj (pilgrimage)
Hadith a saying or tradition of the Prophet Muhammad transmitted through a trustworthy souce chain of reporters; the collection of hadiths
Hagar wife of Abraham, mother of Ishmael, and ancestress of the muslims
Hajj annual pilgramige to Mecca
Haram forbidden, such as certain actions or food
Hidden Imam in Shi'ism, the last Imam (successor to Muhammad) who disappeared into a state of occulation and will return in the future
Hijra emigration of the Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E.
Husayn son of 'Ali, killed at Karbalah (680); considred by Shi'ites as an Imam (successor to the Prophet muhammad) and a great martyr
'id "feast" or festival in Islam; the two major fesvals are 'Id al-adha (feast of sacrifice)during te Hajj month and 'Id al-fitr (feast of breaking the Ramadan Fast)
ihram state of ritual purity and consecration appropriate for entering the sacred precints of Mecca on the Hajj
Ijima' "consensis"; for formulating Muslim law, consensus among the legal sccholars is necessary
ijtihad independent legal reasoning in Islam; one who does this is a mujtaid
imam Islamic scholar and leader, especially in ritual prayer; for Shi'ites, the proper successos to the Prophet are called Imams
Iman "faith", complete certitude about the truth of Islam
Ishmael son of Abraham and Hagar, ancestr of the Muslims
Isnad the chain of transmitters for a particular hadith in Islam
Jihad "striving" for religious perfecin anmd for G-ds cause inclidong bearing arms in defense of Islam if necessary
Judgment Day the day on which G-d will judge all according to their deeds
Ka'bah the cube-shaped stone shrine in the Great Mosque at mecca, focal point of prayer and pilgramige for muslims
Kafir an unbeliever, in Islamic terms
Khadija the first wife of the prophet muhammad
Kharijites "seceders"; strict moralistic sect of early Muslims
mihrab niche in the mosque wall indicating the direction to Mecca
minbar pulpit from which the sermon is given during the froday prayer in the Islamic mosque
mosque (masjid) place
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