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LP - Chapter 13

Lake Park - AP Human Geography - Chapter 13 Vocabulary

Annexation Legally adding land are to a city in the United States
Density gradient A change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery
Edge city A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area
Filtering A process of change in the use of the house, for single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
Gentrification A process of converting in urban neighborhood from a predominantly low income re-enter occupied area to a predominantly middle class owner occupied area
Greenbelt A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, and other types of open space to limit the sprawl of urban area
Metropolitan Statistical Area In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the country within which the city is located, and the adjacent countries meeting one of the several test indicating a functional connection to the central city
Micropolitan Statistical Area An urban eyes the area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the country in which it is found, and adjacent countries tied to the city
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries
Sprawl Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area
Squatter Settlements In area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures
Urbanization An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements
Urban Renewal Program in which cities identify blighted inner city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers
Zoning Ordinance A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in the community
Blockbusting A process by which a real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
Commercialization The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
Disamenity Sector The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords
Edge Cities Describes the shifting focus of urbanization away from the central business district (CBD) toward new economic activity at the urban fringe. Characterized by extensive amount of office in retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings
Shantytown Unplanned slum development on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and pieces of cardboard
Spaces of Consumption Areas of a city, the main purpose of which is to encourage people to consume goods and services; driven primarily by the global media industry
Suburbanization Movement of upper and middle class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well is deteriorating social conditions. Process became a phenomenon by second half of the 20th century
Sunbelt Phenomenon the movement of millions of Americans from northern in northeastern states to the south and southwest regions of the United States
Tear-downs Homes bought in many American suburbs with the intent of tearing them down and replacing them with much larger homes often referred to as Mcmansions
Urban Sprawl Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expenses of land, with little concern for urban planning
Zone Area of the city with the relatively uniform land use ( e.g. an industrial zone, or a residential zone)
Zoning Laws Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the United States, areas are most commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use
Bid Rent Theory Suggests that because the closer to the central business district, the higher the value of the land, that only commercial enterprises can afford the land with in central business district
Counterurbanization The process of moving away from urban areas, usually when people want to get away from traffic, crime, and pollution
Zoning A system of land use regulation whereby cities determine where each type of economic enterprise - residential, commercial, and industrial - can be located
Gateway City Cities that, because of the geographic location, act as ports of entry in distribution centers for large geographic areas
Megalopolis Several metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that has joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex
Urban Revitalization The process occurring in some urban areas experiencing inner city decay that usually involves the construction of new shopping districts, entertainment venues, and cultural attractions to entice young urban professionals back into the cities