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A&P I Chapter 11

Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of? The brain, spinal cord - in dorsal cavity.
The CNS is the __ of the nervous system. Integrating & command center.
The peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of? The nerves (bundles of axons) that extend FROM brain & spinal cord - spinal & cranial nerves.
The peripheral nerves serve as? Communication lines that link all parts of the body to CNS.
2 functional subdivisions of PNS are? Motor/efferent division (to CNS) & sensory/afferent division (away from CNS).
Sensory/Afferent Division Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors t/o the body.
Sensory fibers conveying impulses from skin, skeletal muscles, & joints are called __. Somatic afferent fibers (soma
Sensory fibers transmitting impulses from visceral organs. Visceral afferent fibers
Role of the motor/efferent division? Transmits impulses from CNS to effector organs - muscles & glands - they effect a motor response.
The motor division of the PNS has 2 main parts. (1) Somatic nervous system (voluntary), (2) autonomic nervous system (ANS) (involuntary).
Another name for the somatic nervous system? Involuntary (autonomic) nervous system
The autonomic (involuntary) nervous system has 2 divisions. Sympathetic & parasympathetic
The sympathetic & parasympathetic work in __. Opposition - what one stimulates, the other inhibits.
Nervous tissue made of which 2 principal types of cells? (1) supporting cells, (2) neurons
Glia cells provide a __ for neurons. Supportive scaffolding
Name the neuroglia in the CNS. Astrocytes, microglia, ependymal cells, & ogligodendrocytes.
Like neurons, most glial cells have __. Branching processes (extensions) & central body.
Neuroglia can be distinguished by their __. Their much smaller size & darker - staining nuclei.
Neuroglia make up about __ mass of brain. Half
Astrocytes Most abundant & versatile glial cells - exchanges between capuillaries & neurons, guide migration of young neurons.
Which neuroglia "mop up" leaked potassium ions & recapturing released neurotransmitters. Signaling one another by slow-paced intracellular calcium pulses (calcium sparks) & they participate in info. processing in brain.
Microglia Small ovoid cells - monitor health of nearby neurons - phagocytize microorganisms or neuronal debris.
Cells of the immune system are denied access to the CNS, so __ are important to phagocytize invading microorganisms. Microglia
Ependymal Cells Squamous to columnar in shape & many are ciliated - line central cavities of brain & spinal cord - circulate the cerebrospinal fluid.
Oligodendrocytes Wrap their processes around neuron fibers to produce insulating coverings called myelin sheaths.
Name the 2 neuroglia of the PNS. (1) Satellite cells & (2) Schwann cells
Satellite cells Surround neuron cell bodies in PNS - unknown purpose.
Schwann cells Neurolemmocytes - form myelin sheaths around lg. nerve fibers in PNS. Vital to regen. of damaged peripheral nerve fibers.
Which neuroglia are vital to regeneration of damaged PN fibers? Schwann cells
Special characteristics of neurons are? (1) extreme longivity, (2) amitotic (can't divide), & (3) high metabolic rate.
Perikaryon Neuron cell body (soma) - major biosynthetic center of a neuron.
Nissl bodies Rough ER of neuron - probably the most active & best developed in body.
Neurofibrils Bundles of intermediate filaments (neurofilaments) - maintain cell shape & integrity.
Lipofuscin "Aging Pigment" - accumulates in neurons of elderly individuals.
Clusters of cell bodies in CNS are called __. Nuclei
Clusters of cell bodies that lie along nerves of PNS are called __. Ganglia
Bundles of neuron processes are called __ in the CNS and __ in the PNS. Tracts, nerves
Any long axon is called a __. Nerve fiber
Some axons have occasional branches called __. Axon collaterals
Axon endings usually have 10,000 or more __ per neuron. Terminal branches, or telodendria
Knoblike distal endings of terminal branches have various names like __. Axon terminals, synaptic knobs, or boutons.
The conducting region of the neuron. Axon
The axon functions to __ & __. Generates nerve impulses & transmits them.
Axons differ fromdendrites & cell body in 2 important ways. lacks nissl bodies (rough ER) & golgi apparatus.
Axon depends on __ to renew necessary proteins. Its cell body
Axolemma Axon plasma membrane
What viruses & bacterial toxins use retrograde axonal transport? Polio, rabies, herpes simples, & tetanus.
Dendrites are always __. Unmyelinated
Myelin sheaths in the PNS are formed by? Schwann Cells
Neurilemma Portion of Schwann cell's plasma membrane that bulges due to nucleus & cytoplasm.
Gaps in the myelin sheath are called __. Nodes of Ranvier or neurofibril nodes.
Axon collaterals emerge from the axon at __. Nodes of Ranvier (neurofibril nodes) - gaps in myelin sheath.
Myelin sheaths are formed by __ in the CNS. Oligodendrocytes
CNS myelin sheaths lack neurilemma because? Cell extensions are doing the coiling - by oligodendrocytes.
White matter contains __ fibers. Myelinated
Gray matter contains __ fibers. Unmyelinated
Neuorons are grouped structurally according to __. Numbers of processes extending from cell body.
3 major neuron groups - structurally. Multipolar, bipolar, & unipolar (psudounipolar)
Most common polar class of neurons is __. Multipolar neurons - 99%
Bipolar neurons are rare & found where? Sense organs like retina of eye & olfactory mucosa.
Psudounipolar neurons are found where? In ganglia in PNS as sensory neurons.
3 functional classes of neurons. Sensory, motor, & interneurons.
Virtually all sensory neurons are __. Unipolar
Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit impulses __ sensory receptors. To
Motor (efferent) neurons carry messages __ CNS to organs. Away from
Cell bodies of sensory neurons are located __ CNS while motor neurons are __ the CNS. Outside, in
99% of neurons in body are __. Interneurons in CNS (multipolar).
Interneurons are organized in information-processing __. Blocks (circuits)
Reflex arc Sensory neurons synapse directly on motor neurons - simplest path of info flow.
CNS (Central Nervous System) Brain, spinal cord, interneurons
PNS (Peripheral Nevous System) Nerves - somatic & autonomic subdvisions
Ganglia Cell bodies of several neurons that occur in clusters.
Name a demyelinating disease. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) - autoimmune disease.
Group A nerve fibers Thick myelin sheaths & diameter - Somatic sensory & motor - sense skin, skeletal muscles, & joints.
Group B nerve fibers Lightly myelinated - autonomic NS - visceral organs, pain & touch of skin.
Group C nerve fibers Unmyelinated - smalles diameter - no saltatory conduction.
Synapses between axon ending of 1 neuron & dendrites of other are __ synapses. Axodendric
Synapse between axon of 1 neuron & cell bodies of others are __ synapses. Axosomatic
Neurons have between __ axon terminals making synapses. 1000 - 10,000
Electrical synapses less common - gap junctions - protein channels - eye jerks, embryonic tissue, glial cells in CNS.
Inhibitory synapses occur most often on the __. Cell body
Excitatory synapses occur most often on the __. Dendrites
__ & __ are the "language" of the N.S. Neurotransmitters & electrical signals.
Biogenic Amines Include: dopamine, norepinephrine, etc - are catecholamines & indolamines - emotional behavior & bio clock - mental illness.
Peptides Pain & pleasure - gut-brain peptides.
Purines ATP - fast excitatory responses, adenosine (inhibiter of caffine)
Dissolved gases Nitrous Oxide, & Carbon Monoxide
Channel-linked receptors Change shape - ligand-gated ion channels (ionotropic receptors)
G Protein-linked receptors Metabotropic receptors - slow, go-betweens
Neuronal pools Functional groups of neurons that process & integrate info.
Diverging Circuits Amplifying circuits - common in sensory & motor sys.
Converging Circuits Have concentrating effect - putting it all together.
Reverberating (oscillating) circuits Involved in control of rhythmic activities like: sleep-wake, breathing, arm swinging. Oscillates for seconds, hours, etc.
Serial processing Input travels along 1 pathway - reflex arc
Parallel processing Input travels along several pathways to be integrated in a different pathway. Associations.
N.S. originates from a __ & __ formed from surface __. Neural tube, neural crest - surface ectoderm.
Created by: 100000198772503



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