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HHS Endocrine System

Medical Word Elements & Abbreviations

Antagonistic Acting in opposition; mutually opposing
electrolytes mineral salts (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carry an electrical charge in solution
Glucagon Hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
Glucose Simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion
Homeostasis Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes
hormones Chemical substances produced by specialized cells of the body that are released slowly in minute amounts directly into the bloodstream
Insulin Hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen)
Sympathomimetic Agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
Target Structure, organ, or tissue to which something is directed
ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: promotes secretion of hormones by adrenal cortex
FSH Follicle-stimulating Hormone: women- stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen, men- stimulates sperm production
GH Growth Hormone: bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissue growth; increases use of fats for energy
LH Luteinizing Hormone: women- promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone men- promotes secretion of testosterone
Prolactin Promotes lactation
TSH Thyroid-stimulating hormone: stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
ADH Antidiuretic Hormone: Kidney- increases water re-absorption
Oxytocin uterus- stimulates uterine contractions breast- promotes milk secretion from the mammary glands
calcitonin regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone, secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high
T4 & T3 Thyroxine - increases energy production from all food types Triiodothyronine - increases rate of protein synthesis
PTH Parathyroid Hormone: Bones- increases the re-absorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood Kidneys- increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion small intestine- increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
Cortisol promote gluconeogenesis: regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, helps depress inflammatory and immune responses
Aldosterone Kidneys- increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys
Epinephrine targets sympathetic nervous system mimics its activities- increase metabolic rate and heart rate and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
Glucagon raises blood glucose levels
Insulin lowers blood glucose levels
adren/o, adrenal/o adrenal glands
calc/o calcium
crin/o secrete
gluc/o, glyc/o, glycos/o sugar, sweetness
home/o same, alike
kal/i potassium
pancreat/o pancreas
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
Thym/o thymus gland
thyr/o, thyroid/o thyroid gland
toxic/o poison
-crine secrete
-dipsia thirst
-gen forming, producing, origin
-toxic poison
-uria urine
eu- good, normal
exo- outside, outward
hyper- excessive, above normal
hypo- under, below
poly- many, much