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Bio 120 Ch 15

The Respiratory System

Inhaled air is first warmed by the nasal musoca
The bones the increase the surface of the nasal mucosa are the conchae
The nasopharynx is located behind nasal cavities
The nasopharynx is lined with epithelium ciliated
The oropharynx is located behind the mouth
The oropharynx is lined with epithelium stratified squamous
The laryngopharynx opens into the larynx and esophagus
The part of the pharynx that is an air passageway only is the nasopharynx
The parts of the pharynx that are passageways for both air and food are oropharynx and the laryngopharynx
During swallowing the nasopharynx is covered by the soft palate
The function of the soft palate is to cover the during nasopharynx, swallowing
During swallowing the larynx is covered by the epiglottis
The function epiglottis is to cover the during larynx, swallowing
The palatine tonsils are tissue lymphatic
The palatine tonsils are on the lateral walls of the oropharynx
The adenoid is tissue lymphatic
The adenoid is lymphatic tissue on the wall of the nasopharynx
The general purpose of the tonsils is to destroy pathogens
Coming from the middle ear cavities, the open into the nasopharynx eustachian tubes
The airway of the larynx is lined with epithelial tissue ciliated
The trachea is lined with epithelial tissue ciliated
Mucus and pathogens are swept out of the larynx and trachea by ciliated epithelial tissue
The larynx is an passage way between the laryngopharynx and the trachea
The larynx contains vocal cords, folds that vibrate when air is exhaled
For most people, the speech areas are in the of the cerebrum left hemisphere
The airway of the larynx is kept open by cartilage
The trachea is kept open by cartilage
The trachea is kept open by cartilage shape of a C
The tissue that keeps the larynx and trachea open is cartilage
The trachea extends from the to the larynx, primary bronchi
The trachea and all the respiratory passages are collectively called the bronchial tree
The bronchioles differ from the bronchi in that there are no in their walls and they may cartilage, close
The bronchioles can constrict or dilate because of the tissue in their walls smooth muscle
The right bronchus branches into secondary bronchi three
The left primary bronchus branches into two
The serous membrane that lines the chest cavity is the parietal pleura
The serous membrane the covers the lungs is the visceral pleura
The pleura covers the lungs visceral
The pleura lines the chest cavity parietal
During breathing, friction between the pleural membranes is reduces by serous fluid
The functions of the serous fluid of the pleural membranes is to prevent during friction, breathing
The alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries are all made of simple squamous epithelial
Exchange of gases is possible in the lungs because the alveoli are lined with in which gasses can desolve tissue fluid
Normal inflation of alveoli is possible because decreases the surface tension within alveoli pulmonary surfactant
Pulmonary surfactant permits normal inhalation because it decreases the within alveoli surface tension
All of the structures and substance through which gasses diffuse in the lungs are collectively called the respiratory membrane
The diaphragm is made of muscle skeletal
During inhalation the diaphragm moves downward
The diaphragm during inhalation contracts
The diaphragm during exhalation relaxes
During exhalation the diaphragm moves upward
The diaphragm contracts during inhalation
The diaphragm relaxes during exhalation
During inhalation the chest cavity is expanded top to bottom be the contraction of the didphragm
The external intercostal muscles contribute to by pulling the ribs inhalation, up and out
The ribs are pulled up and out by the external intercostal
The internal intercostal muscles contribute to a forced inhalation
A forced exhalation requires muscles internal intercostal
The muscles that bring about inhalation are the muscles diaphragm
The elastic connective tissue of the lungs contributes to exhalation
Normal exhalation is a passive process and depends on the tissue of the lungs elastic connective
The air pressure outside the body is called pressure atmospheric pressure
The air pressure within the bronchial tree is called intrapulmonic pressure
During inhalation, intrapulmonic pressure decreases
During exhalation, intrapulmonic pressure increases
In external respiration oxygen diffuses from the alveoli
In external respiration carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood
During breathing the pleural membranes are kept together by the presence of serous fluid
The partial pressure of a gas in air or a body fluid is a measure of the of the gas consentration
In internal respiration oxygen from the to the blood, tissue
In internal respiration carbon dioxide diffuses form the to the blood tissue, blood
In internal respiration the PO2 in the blood is high
In internal respiration the PO2 in the tissue is low
In internal respiration the PCO2 in the blood is low
In internal respiration the PCO2 in the tissues is high
Most oxygen is transported to tissues bonded on the hemoglobin
Most oxygen is transported t tissues bonded to the hemoglobin in red blood cells
The mineral that is essential for oxygen transport is iron
because it is part of hemoglobin
Oxygen is released from hemoglobin to tissues where the P is low and the P is high O2, CO2
Most carbon dioxide is transported in hte blood in the form of in the bicarbonate ions, plasma
Bicarbonate ions are in the plasma are the form of blood transport of carbon dioxide
The CNS respiration centers are located in the and medulla, pons
The inspiration and expiration centers are located in the medulla of the brain
The apneustic and pneumotaxic centers are located in the pons of the brain
The nerve impulses that stimulate contractions of the respiratory muscles come form the ________ centers in the ________ inspiratory, medulla
The _________ nerves are motor to the diaphragm phernic
The phrenic nerves carry motor impulses to the diaphragm
The functions of the apneustic center is to prolong inhalation
The function of the pneumotaxic center is to help bring about exhalation
The strongest stimulus to increase the breathing rate is a ________ level of ______ in the blood higher, carbon dioxide
The strongest stimulus to increase the breathing rate is a higher level of _______ in the blood because this makes the blood more __________ carbon dioxide, acidic
The strongest stimulus to increase the breathing rate is a higher level of ___________ in the blood because this will __________ the pH of the blood Carbon dioxide, decrease
The chemoreceptors that detect a decrease in the blood oxygen level are located in the __________ and the _________ carotid body, aortic body
The carotid and aortic bodies contain _________ that detect decreases in the blood ________ level chemoreceptors, oxygen
The chemoreceptors that most rapidly detect an increase in the blood CO2 level are located in the medulla
The medulla contains the chemoreceptors that most rapidly detect increases in the blood level of the carbon dioxide
Hypoxia is the stimulus for the breathing rate to ________ in order to _______ increase, inhale more oxygen
An elevated blood CO2 level is a stimulus for the breathing rate to________ in order to_________ increase, exhale more CO2
The nasal mucosa is made of _________ epithelial tissue ciliated
The nasal mucosa is __________ epithelial tissue with goblet cells that secrete _________ ciliated, mucus
Two functions of the nasal mucosa are to ________ the incoming air and add _________ warm. moisture
The general cause of respiratory acidosis ia a __________ in breathing rate or efficienct that result in ________ CO2 in the body decrease, more
The general cause of respiratory alkalosis is a _________ in breathing rate that results in __________ CO2 in the body increase. less
A severe respiratory acidosis cause the blood pH to fall below 7.35
A severe respiratory alkalosis will cause the blood pH to rise above 7.45
patient who is anxious and hyperventilating may also be in a pH state of respiratory alkalosis
A patient with severe emphysema will also be in a state of reapiratory acidosis
To compensate for the metabolic acidosis the respiratory rate will _______ in order to _________ more carbon dioxide increase, exhale
To compensate for a metabolic acidosis the respiratory rate will _______ in order to______ more carbon dioxide and ________ the blood pH increase, exhale, raise
To compensate for a metabolic alkalosis the respiratory rate will _______ in order to ________ more carbon dioxide decrease, retain
To compensate for a metabolic alkalosis the respiratory rate will ________ in order to _________ more carbon and ________ the blood pH decrease, retain, lower
The limit of respiratory compensation for an ongoing metabolic pH inbalance is approximately 75%
Created by: KaraW



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