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MedTerm (Ch. 5)

Ch. 5: Integumentary System

androgen generic term for agent (usually a hormone, such as testosterone and androsterone) that stimulates development of male characteristics
ductule very small duct
homeostasis state in which the regulatory mechanisms of the body maintain an internal environment within tolerable levels, despite changes in the external environment
scrotum pouch of skin in the male that contains the testicles
synthesis formation of a complex substance by the union of simpler compounds or elements
synthesize to produce by synthesis
What is the main function of the skin? to protect the entire body, including all of its organs, from the external environment
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Blood, Lymph, and Immune systems? skin is the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens in the body
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Cardiovascular system? cutaneous blood vessels dilate and constrict to help regulate body temperature
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Digestive system? (1) skin absorbs vitamin D (produced when skin is exposed to sunlight) needed for intestinal absorption of calcium (2) excess calories are stored as subcutaneous fat
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Endocrine system? subcutaneous layer of skin stores adipose tissue when insulin secretions cause excess carbohydrate intake to fat storage
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Female Reproductive system? (1) subcutaneous receptors provide pleasurable sensations associated with sexual behavior (2) skin stretches to accommodate the growing fetus during pregnancy
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Genitourinary system? (1) receptors in the skin respond to sexual stimuli (2) skin provides an alternative route for excreting salts and nitrogenous wastes in the form of perspiration
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Musculoskeletal system? (1) skin synthesizes vitamin D needed for absorption of calcium essential for muscle contraction (2) skin also synthesizes vitamin D needed for growth, repair, and maintenance of bones
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Nervous system? cutaneous receptors detect stimuli related to touch, pain, pressure, and temperature
What is the relationship of the Skin to the Respiratory system? (1) skin temperature may influence respiratory rate, as temperature increases, respiratory rate may also increase (2) hair of the nasal cavity filter particles from inspired air before it reaches the lower respiratory tract
adip/o fat
lip/o fat
steat.o fat
cutane/o skin
dermat/o skin
derm/o skin
hidr/o sweat
sudor/o sweat
ichthy/o dry, scaly
kerat/o horny tissue; hard; cornea
melan/o black
myc/o fungus (plural, fungi)
onych/o nail
ungu/o nail
pil/o hair
trich/o hair
scler/o hardening; sclera (white of eye)
seb/o sebum, sebaceous
squam/o scale
xen/o foreign, strange
xer/o dry
-cyte cell
-derma skin
-logist specialist in the study of
-logy study of
-therapy treatment
an- without, not
dia- through, across
epi- above, upon
homo- same
hyper- excessive, above normal
sub- under, below
Grade 1 Tumor: tumor cells well differentiated close resemblance to tissue of origin, thus, retaining some specialized functions
Grade 2 Tumor: tumor cells moderately differentiated (1) less resemblance to tissue of origin (2) more variation in size and shape of tumor cells (3) increased mitoses
Grade 3 Tumor: tumor cells poorly to very poorly differentiated (1) only remotely resembles tissue of origin (2) marked variation in shape and size of tumor cells (3) greatly increased mitoses
Grade 4 Tumor: tumor cells very poorly differentiated (1) little to no resemblance to tissue of origin (2) extreme variation in size and shape of tumor cells
TNM the tumor, node, metastasis system of staging, including designations, stages, and degrees of tissue involvement
T0 no evidence of tumor
Tis Stage 1: carcinoma in situ indicates the tumor is in a defined location and shows no invasion into surrounding tissues
T1, T2, T3, T4 Stage 2: primary tumor size and extent of local invasion, when T1 is small with minimal invasion and T4 is large with extensive local invasion into surrounding organs and tissues
N0 regional lymph nodes show no abnormalities
N1, N2, N3, N4 Stage 3: degree of lymph node involvement and spread to regional lymph nodes, where N1 is less involvement with minimal spreading and N4 is more involvement with extensive spreading
M0 no evidence of metastasis
M1 Stage 4: indicates metastasis
abscess localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a 'staphylococcal' infection
acne inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin with characteristic lesions that include blackheads (comedos), inflammatory papules, pustules, nodules, and cysts; usually associated with seborrhea; also called 'acne vulgaris'
alopecia partial or complete loss of hair resulting from normal aging, an endocrine disorder a drug reaction, anticancer medication, or a skin disease; commonly called 'baldness'
Bowen disease form of intraepidermal carcinoma (squamous cell) characterized by red-brown scaly or crusted lesions that resemble a patch of psoriasis or dermatitis; also called 'Bowen precancerous dermatosis'
cellulitis diffuse (widespread), acute infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
chloasma pigmentary skin discoloration usually in yellowish brown patches or spots
comedo typical small skin lesion of acne vulgaris caused by accumulation of keratin, bacteria, and dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin
dermatomycosis infection of the skin caused by fungi
ecchymosis skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a 'bruise'
eczema chronic skin inflammation characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and possibly, itching
erythema redness of the skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
eschar damaged tissue following a severe burn
impetigo bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
keratosis thickened area of the epidermis or any horny growth on the skin (such as a callus or wart)
lentigo small brown macules, especially on the face and arms, brought on by sun exposure, usually middle-aged or older person
pallor unnatural paleness or absence of color in the skin
pediculosis infestation with lice, transmitted by personal contact or common use of brushed, combs, or headgear
petechia minute, pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin
pressure ulcer skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure from lying in one position that prevents blow flow to the tissues, usually in bedridden patients; also know as 'decubitus ulcer'
pruritus intense itching
psoriasis chronic skin disease characterized by circumscribed red patches covered by thick, dry, silvery, adherent scales caused by excessive development of the basal layer of the epidermis
purpura any several bleeding disorders characterized by hemorrhage into the tissues, particularly beneath the skin or mucous membranes, producing ecchymoses or petechiae
scabies contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite, commonly through sexual contact
tinea fungal skin infection whose name commonly indicates the body part effected; also called 'ringworm'
urticaria allergic reaction of the skin scharacterized by the eruption of pale red, elevated patches called 'wheals' or 'hives'
verruca epidermal growth caused by a virus; also known as warts; types include plantar warts, juvenile warts, and venereal warts
vitiligo localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
skin test (ST) any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it
intradermal skin test skin test that identifies suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting small amount of extracts of the suspected allergens and observing the skin for a subsequent reaction
patch skin test skin test that identifies suspected allergens by topical application of the substance to be tested (such as food, pollen, and animal fur), usually in the forearm, and observing for a subsequent reaction
scratch (prick) skin test skin test that identifies suspected allergens by placing a small quantity of the suspected allergen on a lightly scratched area of the skin
biopsy representative tissue sample from a body site for microscopic examination
needle biopsy removal of a small tissue sample for examination using a hollow needle, usually attached to a syringe
punch biopsy removal of a small core of tissue using a hollow punch
shave biopsy removal of surgical blade is used to removed elevated lesions
frozen section (FS) biopsy ultrathin slice of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
chemical peel chemical removal of the outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses; also called 'chemabrasion'
debridement removal of necrotized tissue from a wound by surgical excision, enzymes, or chemical agents
dermabrasion rubbing (abrasion) using wire brushes or sandpaper to mechanically scrape away (abrade) the epidermis
fulguration tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current; also called 'electrodesiccation'
cryosurgery use of subfreezing temperature (commonly liquid nitrogen) to destroy or eliminate abnormal tissue, such as tumors, warts, and unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue
incision and drainage (I&D) process of cutting through a lesion such as an abscess and draining its contents
skin graft surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site
allograft (skin graft) transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another person; also called 'homograft'
autograft (skin graft) transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
synthetic skin graft transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
xenograft (skin graft) transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human; also called 'heterograft'
antifungals alter the cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity, resulting in cell death (1) nystatin: Mycostatin, Nyston (2) intraconazole: Sporanox
antihistamines inhibit allergic reactions of inflammation, redness, and itching caused by the release of histamine (1) diphenhydramine: Benadryl (2) loratadine: Claritin
antiseptics topically applied agents that inhibit growth of bacteria, thus preventing infections in cuts, scratches, and surgical incisions (1) ethyl, or isopropyl alcohol (2) hydrogen peroxide
corticosteroids decrease inflammation and itching by suppressing the immune system;s inflammatory response to tissue damage (1) hydrocortisone: Certacort, Cortaid (2) triamcinolone: Azmacort, Kenalog
keratolytics destroy and soften the outer layer of skin so that it is sloughed off or shed Ex: tretinoin: Retin-A, Vesanoid
parasiticides kill insect parasites, such as mites and lice (1) lindane: Kwell, Thion (2) permethrin: Nix
protectives cover, cool, dry, or soothe inflamed skin (1) lotions: Cetaphil moisturizing lotion (2) ointments: vaseline
topical anesthetics block sensation of pain by numbing the skin layers and mucous membranes (1) lidocaine: Xylocaine (2) procaine: Novocain
Bx, bx biopsy
BCC basal cell carcinoma
CA cancer; chronological age, cardiac arrest
cm centimeter
decub decubitus (ulcer)
derm dermatology
FS frozen section
ID intradermal
I&D incision and drainage
IMP impression (synonymous with diagnosis)
IV intravenous
subcu, Sub-Q, subQ subcutaneous (injection)
ung ointment
XP, XDP xeroderma pigmentosum
Created by: 10234895